prairie rose

(Rosa arkansana var. suffulta)

Conservation Status

 

No image available

 
  IUCN Red List

not listed

     
  NatureServe

NNR - Unranked

SNR - Unranked

     
  Minnesota

not listed

     
           
Wetland Indicator Status
     
  Great Plains

FACU - Facultative upland

     
  Midwest

FACU - Facultative upland

     
  Northcentral & Northeast

FACU - Facultative upland

     
           
 
Description
 
 

Prairie rose (var.suffulta) is a low, perennial shrub that rises on one to a few stems from a root crown, deep roots, and horizontal, underground stems (rhizomes). It can be 12 to 40 tall, though in Minnesota it is rarely more than 18 in height. The roots extend very deep, sometimes more than 10, which makes it very drought resistant. The plant is long lived but in Minnesota the aboveground stems often die back to the base in the fall. In the spring new stems rise from the perennial root crown. It often forms loose colonies.

The stems are erect to spreading or ascending, unbranched or few branched, flexible, round, and hairless. They may be slender or stout, up to 3 16 in diameter. First-year stems and branches are green. They are densely covered with stiff, slender, bristle-like prickles. The prickles are evenly distributed, not paired at the nodes, and are all more or less alike though unequal in size. They are mostly round, not flattened, and mostly 1 32 to long and 1 64 to 1 16wide, with some up to 5 16 long. The base of the prickles are broadened but rarely to more than . The stems become reddish-brown to dark purple in the second year.

The leaves are alternate, deciduous, mostly 2 to 4¼ long, sometimes up to 6¼ long, and 2½to 3 wide. They are on hairy, to 1 3 16 long leaf stalks (petioles). The petioles do not have scattered glands. At the base of the leaf stalk is a pair of leaf-like appendages (stipules) that are fused to the base of the leaf stalk. The stipules are 11 16 to 15 16long and may have a few glands or gland-tipped teeth near the tip. The leaves are pinnately divided into usually 9, sometimes 7 or 11 leaflets.

The leaflets are inversely egg-shaped or occasionally elliptic, to 19 16 long, and 5 16 to ¾ wide. They are angled at the base and usually blunt, sometimes pointed at the tip. The upper surface is dark green, dull, and hairless or nearly hairless. The lower surface is pale green and densely covered with short, fine hairs, at least along the veins. The margins are singly toothed with 7 to 15 sharp, forward-pointing teeth per side.

The inflorescence is sometimes a solitary flower, usually a cluster of 3 to 8 large, showy flowers at the tip of green, current year stems or on lateral branches of woody, previous year’s stems. Each flower is borne on a light green, often hairy, to ¾ long flower stalk. Each flower stalk has 3 modified leaves (bracts).

The flowers are 1½ to 2 in diameter. There are 5 sepals, 5 petals, and numerous stamens, and 26 to 43 pistils. The sepals are green, 9 16 to long, and 1 16 to wide. The cup-like base of the flower (hypanthium) is hairless or nearly hairless. The lower (outer) surface of the sepals usually have stalked glands. The petals are to 1 long and wide. They are light pink to bright pink, rarely white. The stamens have more or less yellow filaments and yellow anthers. The styles are free, not fused together, and do not extend noticeably beyond the mouth of the hypanthium. The mass of stigmas is not elevated and effectively closes the mouth of the hypanthium. The flowers are fragrant.

The fruit is a dry seed capsule (achene) surrounded by a mature floral tube (hip). The rose hip is red, fleshy, nearly spherical to egg-shaped, berry-like, to 7 16long, and ¼to ½ wide. It matures in late July to mid-September. Each hip encloses 12 to 15 achenes. The achenes are to 3 16 long, tan, and densely hairy only along one side. The fruits are distributed by animals.

 
     
 

Height

 
 

12 to 40, usually no more than 18

 
     
 

Flower Color

 
 

Light to bright pink

 
     
 

Similar Species

 
 

Prairie rose (Rosa arkansana var. arkansana) is the western variety of this plant. The leaf undersurface is hairless.

Prickly rose (Rosa acicularis ssp. sayi) leaves have usually 5 or 7, sometimes 9, leaflets. The flowers are usually solitary, sometimes in clusters of 2 or 3.

Smooth rose (Rosa blanda var. blanda) has bristles only on the lower part of the stem. First year stems have no prickles. The leaves have usually 5 or 7, sometimes 9, leaflets. The flowers are borne in clusters of 1 to 4.

 
     
 
Habitat
 
 

Dry. Upland prairies, hill prairies, woodland edges and openings, thickets, roadsides, railroads. Full sun.

 
     
 
Biology
 
 

Flowering

 
 

Early June to early August

 
     
 

Propagation

 
 

Most sources indicate that this plant spreads by creeping rhizomes. According to USDA Forest Service Fire Effects Information System (FEIS), “… this is not supported by more recent literature.” FEIS does not provide a citation for this statement.

 
     
 

Pests and Diseases

 
 

Spiny rose gall wasp (Diplolepis bicolor) produces a large, spine-covered gall that may completely engulf a leaflet.

 
     
 
Use
 
 

Prairie rose is the state flower of Iowa and North Dakota.

 
     
 
Distribution
 
 

Distribution Map

 

No information available

 
  3/29/2021      
         
 

Nativity

 
 

Native

 
         
 

Occurrence

 
 

Common

 
         
 
Taxonomy
 
  Kingdom Plantae (green algae and land plants)  
  Subkingdom Viridiplantae (green plants)  
  Infrakingdom Streptophyta (land plants and green algae)  
  Superdivision Embryophyta (land plants)  
  Division Tracheophyta (vascular plants)  
  Subdivision Spermatophytina (seed plants)  
  Class Magnoliopsida (flowering plants)  
  Superorder Rosanae  
 

Order

Rosales (roses, elms, figs, and allies)  
 

Family

Rosaceae (rose)  
  Subfamily Rosoideae  
  Tribe Roseae  
 

Genus

Rosa (rose)  
  Subgenus Rosa  
  Section Rosa  
  Species Rosa arkansana (prairie rose)  
       
 

This is the eastern variety of the species Rosa arkansana. It differs from the western variety, Rosa arkansana var. arkansana, by having a hairy leaf undersurface. The ranges of the two varieties overlap considerably and there is much intergradation of this characteristic throughout the range. Some authorities, including ITIS and Yatskievych, consider this not worthy of taxonomic distinction, and list Rosa arkansana var. suffulta as a synonym of Rosa arkansana.

 
       
 

Subordinate Taxa

 
 

 

 
       
 

Synonyms

 
 

Rosa alcea

Rosa conjuncta

Rosa pratincola

Rosa suffulta

Rosa suffulta var. relicta

 
       
 

Common Names

 
 

Arkansas rose

dwarf prairie rose

prairie rose

sunshine rose

wild prairie rose

 
       

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Glossary

Achene

A dry, one-chambered, single-seeded fruit, formed from a single carpel, with the seed attached to the membranous outer layer (wall) only by the seed stalk; the wall, formed entirely from the wall of the superior ovary, does not split open at maturity, but relies on decay or predation to release the contents.

 

Bract

Modified leaf at the base of a flower stalk, flower cluster, or inflorescence.

 

Hypanthium

A cup-like tubular structure of a flower formed from the fused bases of sepals, petals, and stamens, that surrounds the pistil. Its presence is diagnostic of many families, including Rose, Gooseberry, and Pea.

 

Node

The small swelling of the stem from which one or more leaves, branches, or buds originate.

 

Petiole

The stalk of a leaf blade or compound leaf that attaches the leaf blade to the stem.

 

Pinnate

Having the leaflets of a compound leaf arranged on opposite sides of a common stalk.

 

Prickle

A stiff, sharp, needle-like structure derived from the epidermis or bark of a plant, lacking vascular bundles, and easily removed.

 

Sepal

An outer floral leaf, usually green but sometimes colored, at the base of a flower.

 

Stipule

A small, leaf-like, scale-like, glandular, or rarely spiny appendage found at the base of a leaf stalk, usually occurring in pairs and usually dropping soon.

 

 

 

 

 
 
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