scarlet Indian paintbrush

(Castilleja coccinea f. lutescens)

Conservation Status
scarlet Indian paintbrush (lutescens)
 
  IUCN Red List

not listed

     
  NatureServe

NNR - Unranked

SNR - Unranked

     
  Minnesota

not listed

     
           
Wetland Indicator Status
     
  Great Plains

FACU - Facultative upland

     
  Midwest

FAC - Facultative

     
  Northcentral & Northeast

FAC - Facultative

     
           
 
Description
 
 

Scarlet Indian paintbrush (f. lutescens) is a 5 to 24 tall, erect, annual or biennial, hemiparasitic forb that rises on usually a single stem from a taproot rhizome caudex.

In the first year it develops a rosette of basal leaves. In the second year it sends up flowering stems. The stems are ascending to erect, slender, usually unbranched, and covered with short, fine hairs.

Basal leaves are inversely lance-shaped to egg-shaped, unlobed, up to 3¼ long, and up to ¾ wide. They are often present at flowering.

Stem leaves are variable in form, linear to lance-shaped, 1¼ to 3¼ long, and up to wide. Some leaves are cleft with 3 to 5 linear lobes, the central lobe longer and broader than the lateral lobes. Some leaves are unlobed. The upper surface is hairy. The lower surface is hairy along the veins. The margins are untoothed.

The inflorescence is a dense, yellow, 1½ to 2 long spike at the end of the stem. When in fruit the spike is 4 to 8 long.

Each flower is subtended by a large leaf-like bract. The bracts are lance-shaped, usually deeply 3-lobed, occasionally 5-lobed, wholly or mostly yellow.

The calyx is to 1 long, yellowish, and divided into 2 rounded lobes. The corolla is inconspicuous, consisting of 5 petals fused for their entire length into a greenish-yellow tube that is 13 16 to 11 16 long, slightly longer than the calyx. They are usually at least partially concealed by the colorful bracts.

The fruit is an asymmetrical, egg-shaped, long capsule containing numerous seeds.

 
     
 

Height

 
 

5 to 24

 
     
 

Flower Color

 
 

Greenish-yellow with yellow bracts

 
     
 

Similar Species

 
  Scarlet Indian paintbrush (Castilleja coccinea f. coccinea) has scarlet bracts and calyces.  
     
 
Habitat
 
 

Wet to dry. Prairies, meadows.

 
     
 
Biology
 
 

Flowering

 
 

May to August

 
     
 

Parasitism

 
 

Plants in the genus Castilleja are hemiparasitic. They obtain water and mineral nutrients from the roots of grasses and forbs, but are also photosynthetic, producing chlorophyll. Though it can survive on its own, it has a forty-fold increase in growth when it parasitizes the roots of other plants.

 
     
 
Use
 
 

 

 
     
 
Distribution
 
 

Distribution Map

 

Sources

7.

 
  11/14/2018      
         
 

Nativity

 
 

Native

 
         
 

Occurrence

 
 

 

 
         
 
Taxonomy
 
  Kingdom Plantae (green algae and land plants)  
  Subkingdom Viridiplantae (green plants)  
  Infrakingdom Streptophyta (land plants and green algae)  
  Superdivision Embryophyta (land plants)  
  Division Tracheophyta (vascular plants)  
  Subdivision Spermatophytina (seed plants)  
  Class Magnoliopsida (flowering plants)  
  Superorder Asteranae  
 

Order

Lamiales (mints, plantains, olives, and allies)  
 

Family

Orobanchaceae (broomrape)  
  Tribe Pedicularideae  
  Genus Castilleja (paintbrush)  
  Species Castilleja coccinea (scarlet Indian paintbrush)  
       
 

The genus Castilleja, formerly belonging the family Scrophulariaceae (figwort), has recently been transferred to the family Orobanchaceae (broomrape).

 
       
 

Synonyms

 
  Castilleja ludoviciana  
       
 

Common Names

 
 

Indian paintbrush

painted cup

painted-cup

scarlet Indian paintbrush

scarlet Indian-paintbrush

scarlet paintbrush

scarlet painted-cup

 
       

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Glossary

Bract

Modified leaf at the base of a flower stalk, flower cluster, or inflorescence.

 

Calyx

The group of outer floral leaves (sepals) below the petals, occasionally forming a tube.

 

Corolla

A collective name for all of the petals of a flower.

 

Hemiparasitic

A plant that obtains some or all of its water and nutrients from the roots of other plants but also is photosynthetic.

       
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Plant

  scarlet Indian paintbrush (lutescens)   scarlet Indian paintbrush (lutescens)
       

Inflorescence

  scarlet Indian paintbrush (lutescens)    
       

 

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