yellow trout lily

(Erythronium americanum ssp. americanum)

Conservation Status
yellow trout lily
 
  IUCN Red List

not listed

     
  NatureServe

N5 - Secure

SNR - Unranked

     
  Minnesota

not listed

     
           
           
           
           
           
           
 
Description
 
 

Yellow trout lily is a 4 to 8 tall, erect, perennial that rises from a short, vertical, thickened, underground stem (corm). It is usually found in large colonies.

Most plants are one-leaved and nonflowering. Flowering plants have two leaves. The leaves appear to originate at the base, but they actually originate below ground, about halfway up the underground stem. They are arranged in pairs but are not exactly opposite. They are 3to 9 long, lance-shaped, untoothed, fleshy, green, mottled or spotted with silver, and covered with a whitish, waxy coating.

The inflorescence is a solitary flower hanging downward at the end of a stout, nodding stem. The stem is 4 to 6 tall, hairless and leafless.

The flower has 3 petals and 3 identical-looking sepals, collectively called tepals. The tepals are to 2 long, lance-shaped, and yellow. They may be spotted toward the base. They flare outward, extending nearly to the horizontal, eventually curving backward. The anthers are up to ½ long and red, becoming yellow when covered with pollen.

The fruit is an egg-shaped, 3-celled capsule, to wide. It is held off the ground horizontally at maturity. At the summit it is squared off or convex or ends abruptly in a small, slender point.

 
     
 

Height

 
 

4 to 8

 
     
 

Flower Color

 
 

Yellow, sometimes with spots near the base

 
     
 

Similar Species

 
 

Minnesota dwarf trout lily (Erythronium propullans) is a rare, much smaller plant, 1½ to 4 in height. The leaves are 1½ to 5 long. The flower is white. The tepals are about ½ long.

White trout lily (Erythronium albidum) has white flowers. The fruit is held erect.

 
     
 
Habitat
 
 

Moist. Woods.

 
     
 
Ecology
 
 

Flowering

 
 

April to May

 
     
 

Spring Ephemeral

 
 

Yellow trout lily is a true spring ephemeral. All of the parts of the plant that are above ground will have disappeared by the time the forest canopy has developed in June.

 
     
 

Pests and Diseases

 
 

 

 
     
 
Use
 
 

 

 
     
 
Distribution
 
 

Distribution Map

 

Sources

2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 28, 29, 30.

 
  5/13/2023      
         
 

Nativity

 
 

Native

 
         
 

Occurrence

 
 

 

 
         
 
Taxonomy
 
  Kingdom Plantae (green algae and land plants)  
  Subkingdom Viridiplantae (green plants)  
  Infrakingdom Streptophyta (land plants and green algae)  
  Superdivision Embryophyta (land plants)  
  Division Tracheophyta (vascular plants)  
  Subdivision Spermatophytina (seed plants)  
  Class Liliopsida (monocots)  
 

Order

Liliales (lilies, supplejacks, and allies)  
 

Family

Liliaceae (lilies)  
  Subfamily Lilioideae  
  Tribe Tulipeae  
 

Genus

Erythronium (fawn lilies)  
  Species Erythronium americanum (yellow trout lily)  
       
 

Some sources, including GRIN, place the genus Erythronium in the tribe Lilieae. Other sources, including iNaturalist, separate Erythronium with the genus Tulipa and six other genera into the tribe Tulipeae.

 
       
 

Synonyms

 
 

 

 
       
 

Common Names

 
 

amberbell

American trout-lily

dog-tooth violet

trout lily

yellow adder’s tongue

yellow dog-tooth violet

yellow trout lily

yellow trout-lily

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Glossary

Lanceolate

Lance-shaped; much longer than wide, thickest toward the base, and gradually tapering toward the tip.

 

Oblanceolate

Reverse lanceolate; much longer than wide, thickest toward the tip, and gradually tapering toward the base.

 

Tepal

Refers to both the petals and the sepals of a flower when they are similar in appearance and difficult to tell apart. Tepals are common in lilies and tulips.

 
 
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MinnesotaSeasons.com Photos
 
 

Plant

 
    yellow trout lily      
           
 

Flower

 
    yellow trout lily   yellow trout lily  

 

Camera

     
 
Slideshows
 
  Erythronium americanum
Zi W
 
  Erythronium americanum  
  Trout Lily
DianesDigitals
 
  Trout Lily  
 
About

Copyright DianesDigitals

 
  Trout Lily (Erythronium americanum)
Andree Reno Sanborn
 
  Trout Lily (Erythronium americanum)  

 

slideshow

       
 
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Other Videos
 
  MyNature Apps; Identifying a Trout Lily, Erythronium americanum
MyNatureApps
 
   
 
About

Uploaded on May 3, 2011

How to identify a Trout Lily, Erythronium americanum. Brought to you by MyNature Apps, www.mynatureapps.com

   
  07 Erythronium americanum Séquence 9-Vivaces printanières 1.m4v
Jeanfilm2
 
   
 
About

Uploaded on Jan 9, 2010

L'Érythrone d'Amérique du printemps à l'automne. Erythronum americanum de la primavera hasta el otoño. Dog's tooth violet from spring to fall.

   
  Erythronium americanum with Dan Jaffe
newenglandwild
 
   
 
About

Published on May 18, 2013

New England Wild Flower Society propagator and stock bed grower, Dan Jaffe, examines one of NEWFS's favorite native ephemerals species Erythronium americanum, the American trout lily including growth form, edibility and planting options.

   
  Trout Lily (Erythronium americanum)
wvoutdoorman
 
   
 
About

Published on Mar 27, 2012

Trout Lily (Erythronium americanum) I show the roots and different stages of the plant to help identify

   

 

Camcorder

 
 
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