gallant soldier

(Galinsoga parviflora var. parviflora)

Conservation Status


No Image Available

  IUCN Red List

not listed


NNR - Unranked

SNA - Not applicable


not listed

Weed Status

Shaggy soldier is considered invasive but is listed as a noxious weed only in Alaska.

Wetland Indicator Status
  Great Plains

UPL - Obligate upland


FACU - Facultative upland

  Northcentral & Northeast

UPL - Obligate upland


Gallant soldier is a small summer annual. It is native to South America and Mexico, and in the United States it is native to Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona. It has been introduced and is now naturalized worldwide, including in much of the United States. It is widespread but uncommon in Minnesota. It is found on roadsides, gardens, and in other open disturbed areas. It grows under full or partial sun in moist or moderately moist, loamy soil.

Gallant soldier is a 1½ to 23½ (4 to 60 cm) tall, erect, annual forb that rises on a branching stem from a small taproot and fibrous roots.

The stem is erect or ascending, leafy, and finely ridged and grooved. It has few to many branches and is hairless or sparsely to moderately covered with appressed and sometimes spreading hairs. The upper part of the stem does not have glandular hairs.

The leaves are opposite, ¾ to 4¼ (2 to 11 cm) long, and to 2¾ (15 to 70 mm) wide, sometimes wider. They are on slender, up to 1½ (4 cm) long leaf stalks (petioles). The leaf blades are lance-shaped to broadly egg-shaped and unlobed. They are mostly angled or short-tapered at the base and are angled or tapered to a sharp point at the tip. The upper and lower surfaces are sparsely to densely covered with short, slender, more or less spreading hairs. Three main veins are visible on the upper side. The margins are coarsely toothed with obscure, rounded teeth that amount to little more than bumps, and they have a fringe of short, slender, more or less spreading hairs.

The inflorescence is an irregularly branched cluster (panicle) or loose cluster of flower heads, or sometimes just a single flower head, at the end of the stem and branches, and rising from the upper leaf axils of the main stem. Each flower head is on a 132 to 1½ (1 to 40 mm) long stalk (peduncle). The peduncle is covered with minute gland-tipped hairs.

Each flower head is small, just ¼ to ½ (6 to 12 mm) in diameter. At the base of each head there is a 332 to (2.5 to 4.0 mm) long, 332 to 316 (2.5 to 5.0 mm) in diameter, hemispherical to bell-shaped, cup-like whorl (involucre) of 5 to 8 bracts (phyllaries) in two series. All of the phyllaries are green and are usually hairless. The inner series of 4 to 6 bracts are longer and broader than the outer 1 or 2 bracts. Each phyllary is fused to two thin dry (chaffy) bracts on the upper part of the peduncle (receptacle). The outer phyllaries have a thin white margin. They are dropped with their chaffy bracts as an intact unit with the fruits developing from the ray florets. The inner phyllaries are persistent.

The flower head has usually 5 widely spaced ray florets, sometimes just 4 or up to 8, and 15 to 35 disk florets. Both ray florets and disk florets are fertile. Each ray floret is usually dull white, with a tube-like portion at the base and a 116to (2 to 3 mm) long, widely spreading portion (lamina). The lamina has three teeth at the tip. There is no tuft of bristles (pappus) at the base, or just a minute one, much shorter than the corolla tube, that cannot be seen without a hand lens. Sometimes the rays are pink, and flower heads with both ray colors can appear on the same plant. The disk flowers are yellow. The corollas are 132 to 1 16 (0.8 to 1.5 mm) long and have 5 minute lobes.

The fruit is a black, 116to (1.5 to 2.0 mm) long, inversely cone-shaped or inversely pyramid-shaped (with the narrow end at the base), dry capsule (cypsela). At the base of each cypsela there is a yellowish pappus, usually shorter than the cypsela, that spreads outward as the cypsela matures. The seeds germinate quickly, and there are usually two or three generations each year. This is the feature that gives the plant one of its other common names, quickweed.




1½ to 23½ (4 to 60 cm)


Flower Color


White ray florets, yellow disk florets


Similar Species


Shaggy soldier (Galinsoga quadriradiata) stem hairs are spreading, not appressed. There are gland-tipped hairs near the top of the stem. The leaf margins have distinct, sharp teeth. Both inner and outer phyllaries fall off. The ray florets have a pappus that is as long as the corolla tube. It is more common in Minnesota.


Moist to moderately moist. Roadsides and other open disturbed areas. Full or partial sun. Loamy soil.




June to November


Pests and Diseases






Distribution Map



2, 3, 4, 5, 22, 28, 29, 30.




Native to South America, Mexico, Texas, Arizona, and New Mexico. Introduced and naturalized.




Widespread but uncommon in Minnesota

  Kingdom Plantae (green algae and land plants)  
  Subkingdom Viridiplantae (green plants)  
  Infrakingdom Streptophyta (land plants and green algae)  
  Superdivision Embryophyta (land plants)  
  Division Tracheophyta (vascular plants)  
  Subdivision Spermatophytina (seed plants)  
  Class Magnoliopsida (flowering plants)  
  Superorder Asteranae  


Asterales (sunflowers, bellflowers, fanflowers, and allies)  


Asteraceae (sunflowers, daisies, asters, and allies)  
  Subfamily Asteroideae  


  Subtribe Galinsoginae  


Galinsoga (galinsogas)  


Galinsoga parviflora (gallant soldier)  

Subordinate Taxa






Galinsoga semiclava


Common Names




gallant soldier



lesser quick-weed

littleflower quickweed


small-flower quickweed

smooth Peruvian-daisy














The upper angle where a branch, stem, leaf stalk, or vein diverges.



Modified leaf at the base of a flower stalk, flower cluster, or inflorescence.



Thin, dry scales or bracts; the bracts on the receptacle of the flower head of some Asteraceae.



A collective name for all of the petals of a flower.



A dry, one-chambered, single-seeded seed capsule, formed from a single carpel, with the seed attached to the membranous outer layer (wall) only by the seed stalk; the wall, formed from the wall of the inferior ovary and also from other tissues derived from the receptacle or hypanthium, does not split open at maturity, but relies on decay or predation to release the contents.


Glandular hairs

Hairs spread over aerial vegetation that secrete essential oils. The oils act to protect against herbivores and pathogens or, when on a flower part, attract pollinators. The hairs have a sticky or oily feel.



A whorl of bracts beneath or surrounding a flower or flower cluster.



On plants, the flat portion of a leaf or petal. On mosses, the flat portion of a leaf, not including the costa.



A pyramidal inflorescence with a main stem and branches. Flowers on the lower, longer branches mature earlier than those on the shorter, upper ones.



In angiosperms, the stalk of a single flower or a flower cluster; in club mosses, the stalk of a strobilus or a group of strobili.



On plants: The stalk of a leaf blade or a compound leaf that attaches it to the stem. On ants and wasps: The constricted first one or two segments of the rear part of the body.



An individual bract within the involucre of a plant in the Asteraceae family.



The thickened, upper part of a flower stalk to which flowers or flower parts are attached. In composite flowers, the part on which the florets are borne. In accessory fruits the receptacle gives rise to the edible part of the fruit.





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Other Videos
  Galinsoga parviflora, guasca, mielcilla, galinsoga, gallant soldier, quickweed, potato weed
Nature and consciousness

Jun 4, 2019

Galinsoga parviflora is an herbaceous plant in the Asteraceae (daisy) family. It has several common names including guasca, mielcilla, galinsoga, gallant soldier, quickweed, potato weed

I go through the forests, mountains, hills, fields, and waters to understand the living world and to create a living mind.

I'm just a man who is on passing on this living earth.

A living earth that is closer to death, because of us, of the human being. I spend all my time in nature, enjoying its show. All this time I try to make a video encyclopedia with flora and fauna that I encounter on this living earth. Sometimes with human fauna ...

I meet wild mushrooms, medicinal mushrooms, edible mushrooms, dead mushrooms, toxic mushrooms, magic mushrooms. Every wild mushroom with its mystery and story. The living earth is still amazing. I meet plants, flowers, trees, shrubs, grass, leaves fallen on the living land, leaves fallen on the dead land, leaves that dance in our thoughts and soul. I meet insects, invertebrates of all kinds, butterflies, worms, larvae, birds, fish, mammals, reptiles, amphibians...

But I also encounter deforested forests, hunters, poachers, animals killed, tormented, in a suffering that words can not express. I also meet people who think it is good that they behave like this.

I stretch my hand and save an insect from the drowning. But this people trample under foot my hand. They make their choice. I make my choice.

Sometimes I manage to correctly identify the species of living beings: mushrooms, plants, animals, insects. Sometimes not. What I know is much less than what I do not know. I am just a man in front of a knowledge that surpasses me, overcomes us.

I do not know enough English yet to make my clips more attractive. But I'm learning...A wonderful life, I wish you all!

Galinsoga parviflora, guasca, mielcilla, galinsoga, gallant soldier, quickweed, potato weed

  Edible Plants:Galinsoga
Blanche Cybele Derby

Jul 3, 2013

Galinsoga ( "Galinsoga parviflora") is a nondescript weed that thrives in summer gardens. It's a prolific seeder, so why not make use of it since it's edible. In South America, it's called "guascas" and is a national dish in Columbia.

  Edible Garden Weed Galinsoga - Quickweed Plant Identification

Jul 9, 2013

Thanks for watching MiWilderness.




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Created: 9/15/2022

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