marsh grass of Parnassus

(Parnassia palustris)

Conservation Status
marsh grass of Parnassus
 
  IUCN Red List

LC - Least Concern

     
  NatureServe

NNR - Unranked

SNR - Unranked

     
  Minnesota

not listed

     
           
Wetland Indicator Status
     
  Great Plains

OBL - Obligate wetland

     
  Midwest

OBL - Obligate wetland

     
  Northcentral & Northeast

OBL - Obligate wetland

     
           
 
Description
 
 

Marsh grass of Parnassus is a 8 to 16 tall, erect, perennial forb that rises from a short, thickened, underground stem (caudex) and fibrous roots.

Basal leaves are on long leaf stalks and form a rosette. The leaf stalks are 1½ to 4 times as long as the blades. The blades are stiff, leathery, hairless, broadly egg-shaped to almost circular, 1 to 2 long, and to 1¾ wide. They are ¾ to fully as wide as they are long. The base is usually heart-shaped, sometimes broadly rounded. The blade does not extend down the leaf stalk below the point of attachment. The margins are untoothed.

A single, unbranched, hairless, 8 to 16 long flowering stalk (scape) rises from the rosette of basal leaves. There is usually a single leaf-like bract at or well below the middle of the stem. The bract is stalkless but otherwise similar to and the same size as basal leaves. The blade is broadly egg-shaped. It is heart-shaped at the base, and clasps the stem at the base.

The inflorescence is a single flower held erect at the end of the stem.

The flowers are ¾ to 1½ wide. Each flower has 5 green sepals and 5 white petals. The sepals are to 7 16 long and elliptic. The petals are narrowly to broadly egg-shaped, to ½ long, 1½ to 2 times as long as the sepals. Each petal has 5 to 17 greenish-yellow veins. The 5 center veins are usually unbranched. There are 5 white stamens with brown anthers. There are also 5 white sterile stamens (staminodes) that are divided into 9 to 23 slender filaments for 3 5 or 4 5 of their length. Each filament is green or yellow, 3 16 to long, and topped with a modified anther reduced to a gland. The staminodes are a little shorter than the stamens.

The fruit is a 4-valved, egg-shaped, 5 16 to ½ long capsule with numerous seeds.

 
     
 

Height

 
 

8 to 16

 
     
 

Flower Color

 
 

White with dark green veins

 
     
 

Similar Species

 
  Fen grass of Parnassus (Parnassia glauca) has a smaller bract, smaller than the basal leaves. The bract does not clasp the stem. The staminodes are white, and are divided near the tip into 3 filaments.  
     
 
Habitat
 
 

Wet; meadows, shores rich in lime.

 
     
 
Biology
 
 

Flowering

 
 

July to August

 
     
 
Use
 
 

 

 
     
 
Distribution
 
 

Distribution Map

 

Sources

2, 3, 5, 7.

 
  10/30/2012      
         
 

Nativity

 
 

Native

 
         
 

Occurrence

 
 

Fairly common

 
         
 
Taxonomy
 
  Kingdom Plantae (green algae and land plants)  
  Subkingdom Viridiplantae (green plants)  
  Infrakingdom Streptophyta (land plants and green algae)  
  Superdivision Embryophyta (land plants)  
  Division Tracheophyta (vascular plants)  
  Subdivision Spermatophytina (seed plants)  
  Class Magnoliopsida (flowering plants)  
  Superorder Rosanae  
 

Order

Celastrales (staff-vines and allies)  
 

Family

Celastraceae (bittersweet)  
  Subfamily Parnassioideae  
 

Genus

Parnassia (grass of Parnassus)  
       
 

Subordinate Taxa

 
 

USDA PLANTS recognizes four varieties, two of which occur in Minnesota.

Alaska grass of Parnassus (Parnassia palustris var. palustris)

marsh grass of Parnassus (Parnassia palustris var. tenuis)

mountain grass of Parnassus (Parnassia palustris var. montanensis)

small-flowered grass of Parnassus (Parnassia palustris var. parviflora)

Plants of the World Online recognizes one subspecies and two varieties, none of which occur in North America. Neither GRIN nor ITIS recognize any varieties.

 
       
 

Synonyms

 
 

Parnassia californica

Parnassia montanensis

Parnassia multiseta

Parnassia palustris ssp. neogaea

Parnassia palustris var. montanensis

Parnassia palustris var. palustris

Parnassia palustris var. tenuis

Parnassia palustris var. californica

Parnassia palustris var. neogaea

 
       
 

Common Names

 
 

Arctic grass-of-Parnassus

bog-star

bog stars

marsh grass-of-Parnassus

marsh grass of Parnassus

northern grass-of-Parnassus

northern grass of Parnassus

 
       

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Glossary

Bract

Modified leaf at the base of a flower stalk, flower cluster, or inflorescence.

 

Caudex

A short, thickened, woody, persistent enlargement of the stem, at or below ground level, used for water storage.

 

Clasping

Describing a leaf that wholly or partly surrounds the stem but does not fuse at the base.

 

Scape

An erect, leafless stalk growing from the rootstock and supporting a flower or a flower cluster.

 

Sepal

An outer floral leaf, usually green but sometimes colored, at the base of a flower.

 

Staminode

A modified stamen that produces no pollen. It often has no anther.

       
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Flower

  marsh grass of Parnassus   marsh grass of Parnassus
       
  marsh grass of Parnassus   marsh grass of Parnassus
       
       

 

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Other Videos
 
  Parnassia palustris
ΕΛΕΥΘΕΡΙΟΣ ΚΗΠΟΠΟΥΛΟΣ
 
   
 
About

Published on Sep 28, 2013

A widespread only on mountains in the Mediterranean area. Video was taken on mt Olympus of Greece, in September 2013.

   
       
  Parnassia
heliam's channel
 
   
 
About

Uploaded on Sep 6, 2010

De Parnassia palustris in bloei op natuurterrein Klarenbeek (De Ruige Hof), Amsterdam-Zuidoost. De parnassia is de meest populaire bloem van Noord-Holland.

Aan het begin van de clip ziet u het klein geaderd witje, aan het eind de watersnuffel.

Steun De Ruige Hof.
http://www.deruigehof.nl/

[taxonomy:common=Marsh Grass-of-Parnassus]
[taxonomy:common=Bog-star]
[taxonomy:binomial=Parnassia palustris]

   
       
  Parnassia palustris - Marsh Grass-of-Parnassus
dreamshot
 
   
 
About

Uploaded on Nov 27, 2010

Parnassia (Parnassia palustris) was vroeger in Nederland breed verspreid op de veengronden, zandgronden en in Zuid-Limburg op het krijt. Inmiddels de plant zeldzaam geworden door ontwatering en hogere bemestingsgraad. Parnassia is wettelijk beschermd. Nu groeit ze het meest in vochtige duinvalleien en op drooggevallen zandplaten in afgesloten zeearmen. parnassia -Parnassia palustris - Marsh Grass-of-Parnassus, Northern Grass-of-Parnassus, Bog-star - Parnassie des marais - Sumpf-Herzblatt, Studentenröschen - hepática blanca - Slåtterblomma - Dziewięciornik błotn

HD stockshots broadcast format available at: http://www.stockshot.nl/ -

   
       
  Tolije bahenní Parnassia palustris
Karel Filip
 
   
 
About

Published on Sep 15, 2012

Vzácná, mizející a silně ohrožená květina se představuje.

   
       
  땅끝해남 야생화(12)-물매화
석정주
 
   
 
About

Uploaded on Nov 2, 2011

물매화

과 명 : 범의귀과

학 명 : Parnassia palustris Linne

분 포 지 : 전국

개 화 기 : 7~9월 산기슭의 볕이 잘 드는 습지에서 자라는 여러해살이풀이다. 높이 30cm로 뿌리에서 난 잎은 뭉쳐나고 잎자루가 길다. 줄기는 3~4개가 뭉쳐나고 곧게 선다. 꽃은 흰색으로 줄기 끝에 1개씩 하늘을 향해 달린다. 꽃받침잎은 5개이다. 해남지역에서는 11월초까지도 꽃이 핀다. 물매화풀, 풀매화, 매화초, 다자매화초라는 속명을 갖고 있다. 관상용으로 여러 포기를 한꺼번에 심으며 밀원식물이다. 한방에서는 뿌리를 제외한 식물체 전체를 약재로 쓴다.

오영상 기자 desk@hnews.co.kr

   
       

 

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