wild quinine

(Parthenium integrifolium)

Conservation Status
wild quinine
 
  IUCN Red List

not listed

     
  NatureServe

N5 - Secure

SNR - Unranked

     
  Minnesota

Endangered

     
           
           
 
Description
 
 

Wild quinine is an erect, long-lived, perennial forb that rises on multiple stems from a thickened, tuberous rootstock, and occasionally from a short rhizome. It can be 12 to 40tall, though it is usually no more than 24 in height. They are usually not colonial.

The stems are erect and usually unbranched below the inflorescence. They are rough to the touch and hairless or sparsely to moderately covered with upward-pointed, short, stiff, sharp, appressed hairs. The base of the stem may be hairless or sparsely to moderately covered with softer, more loosely ascending hairs.

Stem leaves are alternate. Basal and lower stem leaves are long-stalked, egg-shaped to lance-shaped, 1¼ to 13¾ long, and ¾ to 4¾ wide. They are long-tapered at the base and angled or tapered to a point at the tip. The upper surface is medium green, rough to the touch, and sparsely to moderately covered with short, stiff hairs. The lower surface is similarly colored and moderately to densely covered with short, spreading hairs. The margins are coarsely toothed or scalloped. They are mostly unlobed but sometimes have a few short lobes near the base.

The leaves become smaller and on shorter stalks or stalkless as they ascend the stem. Middle and upper stem leaves are ¾ to 6 long. The stalked leaves are angled or tapered to the base. The unstalked leaves are rounded or heart-shaped at the base and are sometimes clasping. They are otherwise similar to the lower leaves.

The inflorescence is a dense, more or less flat-topped cluster (corymb) of many heads at the end of the stem.

Each flower head is ¼ to in diameter. There are 5, sometimes six, ray florets and 15 to 35 or more disk florets. Each ray floret is white, 1 32 to 1 16 long, and egg-shaped to nearly circular. It forms a tube at the base out of which a two-branched style protrudes. The disk florets are white. There is no fragrance.

The fruit is a dry, black, to 3 16 long cypsela.

 
     
 

Height

 
 

12 to 24

 
     
 

Flower Color

 
 

White ray florets, white disk florets

 
     
 

Similar Species

 
 

 

 
     
 
Habitat
 
 

Moderate moisture. Upland prairies, savannas. Full sun.

 
     
 
Ecology
 
 

Flowering

 
 

July to September

 
     
 

Pests and Diseases

 
 

 

 
     
 
Use
 
 

 

 
     
 
Distribution
 
 

Distribution Map

 

Sources

2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 28, 29, 30.

 
  7/21/2023      
         
 

Nativity

 
 

Native

 
         
 

Occurrence

 
 

 

 
         
 
Taxonomy
 
  Kingdom Plantae (green algae and land plants)  
  Subkingdom Viridiplantae (green plants)  
  Infrakingdom Streptophyta (land plants and green algae)  
  Superdivision Embryophyta (land plants)  
  Division Tracheophyta (vascular plants)  
  Subdivision Spermatophytina (seed plants)  
  Class Magnoliopsida (flowering plants)  
  Superorder Asteranae  
 

Order

Asterales (sunflowers, bellflowers, fanflowers, and allies)  
 

Family

Asteraceae (sunflowers, daisies, asters, and allies)  
  Subfamily Asteroideae  
  Supertribe Helianthodae  
  Tribe Heliantheae (sunflowers and allies)  
  Subtribe Ambrosiinae (cockleburs, ragweeds, and wild quinines)  
  Genus Parthenium (wild quinines)  
       
 

Subordinate Taxa

 
 

Five varieties have been described. USDA Plants recognizes two varieties. Most taxonomists do not recognize any varieties.

 
       
 

Synonyms

 
 

Parthenium auriculatum

Parthenium hispidum

Parthenium hispidum var. auriculatum

Parthenium integrifolium var. auriculatum

Parthenium integrifolium var. henryanum

Parthenium integrifolium var. hispidum

Parthenium integrifolium var. integrifolium

Parthenium integrifolium var. mabryanum

Parthenium radfordii

Parthenium repens

 
       
 

Common Names

 
 

American feverfew

eastern parthenium

wild quinine

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Glossary

Clasping

Describing a leaf that wholly or partly surrounds the stem but does not fuse at the base.

 

Corymb

A flat-topped or convex inflorescence in which the stalked flowers grow upward from various points on the main stem to approximately the same horizontal plane. The outer flowers open first.

 

Cypsela

A dry, one-chambered, single-seeded fruit, formed from a single carpel, with the seed attached to the membranous outer layer (wall) only by the seed stalk; the wall, formed from the wall of the inferior ovary and also from other tissues derived from the receptacle or hypanthium, does not split open at maturity, but relies on decay or predation to release the contents.

 

Rhizome

A horizontal, usually underground stem. It serves as a reproductive structure, producing roots below and shoots above at the nodes.

 
 
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Plant

 
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Inflorescence

 
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Leaves

 
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Camera

     
 
Slideshows
 
  Parthenium integrifolium WILD QUININE
Frank Mayfield
 
  Parthenium integrifolium WILD QUININE  
  Parthenium integrifolium
Joshua Mayer
 
  Parthenium integrifolium  
 
About

Wild Quinine / American Feverfew

 

 

slideshow

       
 
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