Common Powderhorn

(Cladonia coniocraea)

               
Conservation Status

IUCN Red List

not listed

Common Powderhorn

NatureServe

NNR - Unranked

Minnesota

not listed

Occurrence

Widespread and very common

Season

 

 

 

   
    Photo by Luciearl

Identification

Common Powderhorn is a widespread and very common lichen in Europe, Asia, and North America. In the United States it is found from the east coast to the Midwest, including Minnesota, on the west coast, and in the Rocky Mountains. It grows in the shade on decaying stumps and logs and often at the bases of trees. It rarely grows on bare ground. It is resistant to pollution and can be found in urban areas.

Common Powderhorn produces two types of vegetative growth (thallus). The primary thallus is composed entirely of green to grayish-green, flat, overlapping, leaf-like scales (squamules) that adhere closely to the substrate. Each of these basal squamules is to long and 1 16 to 3 16 wide. The margins are always deeply incised and often lobed. The underside is white and lacks a layer of protective tissue (cortex). The margins and the underside are sparsely to densely covered with tiny granules (soredia).

The secondary thallus is a green to grayish-green, slender, vertical stalk (podetium) that rises from the center of a basal squamule. The podetia is hollow, more or less curved, usually unbranched, 5 16 to 1¾ tall, and 1 32 to 1 16 wide. The tip is usually slender and tapers to a point. Rarely, it ends in a very small, 1 32 to 1 16 (1 to 2 mm) wide cup. The cortex is thin at the base becoming thinner as it approaches the top. It does not extend to the tip or to the interior of the cup. The upper two-thirds of the podetia is mealy due to a covering of soredia, and there are usually small squamules near the base.

The disk-shaped reproductive structures (apothecia) common on many lichens are rarely produced by Common Powderhorn. When present, they are at the tip of the podetia, brown, and less than 1 16 (1.0 to 1.5 mm) in diameter.

 
Similar
Species

Smooth-footed Powderhorn (Cladonia ochrochlora) squamules may be almost entire, unlobed and not incised. Podetia are grayish, thicker, and often branched or twisted. Cups at the tip are usually present. The cortex of the podetia is thick and extends well above the base.


Distribution Distribution Map  

Sources: 4, 24, 26, 29, 30, 77.


Comments

Smooth-footed Powderhorn (Cladonia ochrochlora)


Taxonomy

Division:

Ascomycota (sac fungi)

 

No Rank:

saccharomyceta

 

Subdivision:

Pezizomycotina

 

No Rank:

leotiomyceta

 

Class:

Lecanoromycetes

 

Subclass:

Lecanoromycetidae

 

Order:

Lecanorales

 

Suborder:

Lecanorineae

 

Family:

Cladoniaceae

 

Mycobiont:

Cladonia coniocraea

 

Photobiont:

 

 
Synonyms

 

 
Common
Names

Bighorn Cladonia

Common Powderhorn

Common Powderhorn Lichen


 

 

 

 

 

 

Glossary

Apothecium

An open, disk-shaped or cup-shaped, reproductive structure, with spore sacs on the upper surface, that produces spores for the fungal partner of a lichen. Plural: apothecia.

 

Podetium

The hollow stalk of the fruiting body of lichens in the genus Cladonia. Plural: podetia.

 

Soredium

The reproductive structure of a lichen consisting of a cluster of algal cells (the photobiont) wrapped in fungal filaments (the mycobiont). Plural: soredia.

 

Squamules

On lichens: small, flat, often overlapping, leaf-like scales without a lower cortex. Adjective: squamulose

 

Thallus

The vegetative body of a lichen composed of both the alga and the fungus.

       

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Luciearl


  Common Powderhorn   Common Powderhorn

       
       
       

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  Bighorn Cladonia (Cladonia coniocraea)
Andree Reno Sanborn
 
  Bighorn Cladonia (Cladonia coniocraea)  

 

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Luciearl
10/9/2018

Location: Cass County

Luciearl


     
     
 

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