Parrot Mushroom

(Gliophorus psittacinus)

Conservation Status
Parrot Mushroom
Photo by Stephanie Segner
  IUCN Red List

not listed

     
  NatureServe

NNR - Unranked

     
  Minnesota

not listed

     
           
           
           
           
 
Description
 
 

Parrot Mushroom is small, slimy, waxcap mushroom. It is widespread in North America but not very common in Minnesota. It grows on the ground on damp soil or humus, often on a covering of moss or mossy roadside embankment, in deciduous and coniferous forests. It may be found singly, scattered, or in small groups. It is very slimy, so much so that it may be hard to pluck. It is easy to identify when young, difficult to identify when mature.

The cap is to 13 16 in diameter. When it first appears it is bell-shaped to hemispheric; slimy when moist; shiny, even when dry; and dark green to bright green or olive green. As it ages it flattens out and fades to orangish-yellow from the center out. Mature specimens are broadly convex, parasol-like, sometimes with a bump in the middle (umbonate); and orangish-yellow with a thinly-lined darker margin. The flesh is thin and whitish.

The stalk is ¾ to 19 16 long, sometimes longer, and 1 16 to 3 16thick. It is hollow, slimy when moist, and greenish when young, fading to yellowish-orange as it matures.

There is no universal veil.

The gills are thick, well spaced, waxy, and soft. They are green at first, fading as they age with the cap. They often retain some greenish tint when the cap shows no trace of green. They are broadly attached and may very slightly run down the stalk, but sometimes they pull away from the stalk. The sport print is white.

It is edible but insubstantial and slimy.

 
     
 

Similar Species

 
     
     
 
Habitat and Hosts
 
 

Deciduous and coniferous forests

 
     
 
Ecology
 
 

Season

 
 

Spring through fall

 
     
 
Distribution
 
 

Distribution Map

 

Sources

4, 24, 26, 29, 30, 77.

 
  8/31/2017      
         
 

Occurrence

 
 

Widespread but not common

 
         
 
Taxonomy
 
  Kingdom Fungi (fungi)  
  Subkingdom Dikarya  
  Division Basidiomycota (club fungi)  
  Subdivision Agaricomycotina (jelly fungi, yeasts, and mushrooms)  
  Class Agaricomycetes (mushroom-forming fungi)  
  Subclass Agaricomycetidae  
  Order Agaricales (common gilled mushrooms and allies)  
  Suborder Hygrophorineae  
  Family Hygrophoraceae  
  Subfamily Hygrocyboideae  
  Tribe Humidicuteae  
  Genus Gliophorus (waxcaps)  
  Section Gliophorus  
       
 

Parrot Mushroom was formerly classified as Hygrocybe psittacina and Hygrophorus psittacinus. A molecular phylogenetics study in 2011 determined that it should be placed in the genus Gliophorus. Specimens identified as Gliophorus psittacinus have a very high DNA sequence diversity, indicating that Gliophorus psittacinus is a species group. In Europe, Greenland, and Newfoundland, it is abundant in grasslands. In North America, it is less abundant and is found in forests. Future study may separate this into several species.

 
       
 

Synonyms

 
 

Agaricus dentatus

Agaricus psittacinus

Agaricus cameleon

Bolbitius dentatus

Hygrocybe psittacina

Hygrophorus psittacinus

 
       
 

Common Names

 
 

Parrot Mushroom

Parrot Toadstool

Parrot Waxcap

Parrot Waxgill

Parrot Waxy Cap

 
       

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Glossary

Umbonate

On mushrooms, having a distinct, raised, knob-like projection in the center of the cap.

       
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Stephanie Segner
       
  Parrot Mushroom   Parrot Mushroom
       
  Parrot Mushroom   Parrot Mushroom
       
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Slideshows
   
  Gliophorus psittacinus - fungi kingdom
Fungi Kingdom
 
   
 
About

Published on Jan 23, 2015

Gliophorus psittacinus - fungi kingdom

 
     

 

slideshow

       
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Other Videos
 
  The Parrot Waxcap!!
swenetteee
 
   
 
About

Published on Jun 27, 2016

   
       

 

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Stephanie Segner
8/28/2017

Location: Chanhassen,  MN

Parrot Mushroom


     
     
 
MinnesotaSeasons.com Sightings
         

 

 

 

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Created: 8/31/2017

Last Updated:

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