Pavement Mushroom

(Agaricus bitorquis)

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List

LC - Least Concern


NNR - Unranked


not listed

Photo by Paul

Pavement Mushroom is a common and widespread, gilled mushroom. It is common in Europe and North America, and there are reports of it in Asia and Australia. It occurs throughout the United States and southern Canada. It is found from spring through fall, alone, scattered, or in groups but not clustered (gregarious). It grows on the ground in disturbed sites in hard-packed soil. It is often seen in lawns, parks, playgrounds, and ditches, and along roadsides, sidewalks, curbs, and trails. It can sometimes be seen pushing up through cracks in concrete. This is the feature that gives the mushroom its common name. It sometimes fruits entirely underground.

When it first appears, the cap is convex, smooth, and white or whitish. The surface is dry, without hairs or scales (bald), and often dirty. The margin is rolled inward, often far enough to conceal the ends of the gills. As it ages, the cap spreads out, becoming broadly convex. Mature caps are 1½ to 6 (4 to 15 cm) in diameter and broadly convex or flat, often with a broad, low depression in the center. The margins are not lined. The surface often develops shallow cracks. It does not turn yellow when bruised, but it often becomes yellowish or tan in old age.

The gills are closely spaced and are free, not attached to the stalk. They are pinkish at first, becoming grayish pink, then reddish brown, then dark brown, and finally blackish brown as the spores mature. Between the main gills there are frequent short gills that do not reach near the stalk.

The stalk is solid, very firm, white or whitish, ¾ to 4 (2 to 10 cm) long, and to 1316 (1 to 3 cm) thick. It may be equal in thickness from top to bottom, but it is sometimes thicker below, and it is always narrowed or pointed at the very bottom. The surface is bald but often slightly roughened. There is a white, “double-flanged” ring near the middle of the stem. It is composed of the remnants of the partial veil, the upper part of the ring that covers the gills when young, and the universal veil, the lower part that covers most or all of the mushroom during early development. The upper edge of the partial veil remnant often flares outward. The universal veil remnant tightly sheathes the stem from the base.

The flesh is white, thick, and very firm. It does not change color when bruised or sliced. It is edible and often sought after. However, when growing in polluted areas, it accumulates heavy metals and should be avoided.

The spore print is dark brown.


Similar Species

Habitat and Hosts

Disturbed sites including lawns, parks, playgrounds, and ditches, and along roadsides, sidewalks, curbs, and trails



Spring through fall


Distribution Map



4, 7, 24, 26, 29, 30, 77.






Fungi (fungi)




Basidiomycota (club fungi)


Agaricomycotina (jelly fungi, yeasts, and mushrooms)


Agaricomycetes (mushrooms, bracket fungi, puffballs, and allies)




Agaricales (common gilled mushrooms and allies)


Suborder Agaricineae


Agaricaceae (field mushrooms and allies)


Agaricus (field and button mushrooms)








Subordinate Taxa




Agaricus bitorquis var. validus

Agaricus campestris ssp. bitorquis

Agaricus campestris var. edulis

Agaricus edulis

Agaricus edulis var. validus

Agaricus rodmanii

Fungus bitorquis

Fungus rodmanii

Pratella bitorquis

Pratella campestris var. bitorquis

Pratella campestris var. edulis

Pratella peronata

Psalliota bitorquis

Psalliota edulis

Psalliota edulis var. valida

Psalliota peronata

Psalliota rodmanii


Common Names

Banded Agaric

Banded Agaricus

Pavement Mushroom

Sheathed Stalk

Spring Agaricus


Urban Agaric










Partial veil

A protective covering over the gills or pores of a developing mushroom. At maturity it disappears, collapses into a ring around the stem, or wears away into a cobwebby covering and ring zone.



A term often used for saprotrophic fungi. Referring to fungi that obtain their nutrients from decayed organic matter.


Universal veil

An egg-like structure that envelopes all or most of a developing gill mushroom. Remnants of the universal veil sometimes visible on a mature mushroom are patchy warts on the cap, a ring on the stem, and a volva at the base of the stem.






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Pavement Mushroom   Pavement Mushroom
Pavement Mushroom Photos











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Other Videos

Agaricus bitorquis
Mushroom Cult


Apr 16, 2020

Mushroom Cult Foraging tip #2

Agaricus bitorquis, Huge mushroom. The Pavement Mushroom, edible mushrooms, Wild Food
Wild Food in the UK Ltd


Jul 20, 2014

A huge example of the Agaricus bitorquis. The Pavement Mushroom, The Spring Agaric. It smells very Mushroomy, and blushes redish brown when cut.

Sidewalk Mushrooms: Agaricus bitorquis


May 10, 2023

Always exciting finding these tasty mushrooms! More information is on my website (link below). Check out my new recipe as well that uses these aromatic mushrooms.

Finding Agaricus bitorquis aka Pavement Mushrooms
Adam Berkelmans


Jun 8, 2022

Join the Intrepid Eater as he stumbles upon a spring time bounty of pavement mushrooms growing through the gravel on his country road!



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Location: St. Cloud, MN

Pavement Mushroom Sightings






Created: 5/25/2024

Last Updated:

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