bonfire moss

(Funaria hygrometrica var. hygrometrica)

               
Conservation Status

IUCN Red List

not listed

bonfire moss

 

NatureServe

NNR - Unranked

Minnesota

not listed

Nativity

Native

Occurrence

Common and widespread worldwide. Frequent to occasional in Minnesota.

Habitat

Moist. Swamps, fens, meadows, cattail marshes, wet prairies, and disturbed microhabitats, especially burned over areas. Full sun to light shade.

Height

to

Photo by Luciearl

Identification

There are 189 accepted species of Funaria. Only two have been recorded in Minnesota. Bonfire moss (Funaria hygrometrica) is the most abundant species of Funaria and one of the most common and widespread mosses in the world. It is frequent to occasional in Minnesota. It frequently occurs in waste areas, and is especially common in recently burned areas and around campfire rings. It is also found in natural areas in swamps, fens, meadows, cattail marshes, and wet prairies. It grows in dense tufts and often forms extensive turfs. The tufts are soft to the touch.

The plant consists of a short, to tall, unbranched, leafy stem. The stem is green above, brown near the base. Lower leaves are small,scale-like, and appressed to the stem, making the lower stem appear leafless. This part of the stem is often buried below the surface of the soil. Thread-like outgrowths (rhizoids) on the lower stem anchor it to the soil. The rhizoids are colorless to reddish-brown, sparingly branched, and multicellular. The walls separating the cells are oblique.

Upper leaves are oblong egg-shaped to broadly inversely egg-shaped, 1 16 to long, and 1 32 to 1 16 wide, 2 to 3 times as long as wide. They are clustered at the top of the stem forming a rosette. The leaf blades are deeply concave on the inside, convex toward the margins. The midrib sometimes ends before the tip, sometimes extends beyond the tip creating a short pointed extension. The leaf blades are medium green to yellowish-green and translucent due to the very large transparent cells that form them. They have only a single layer of cells. The cells are hexagonal, thin-walled, and easily visible with a hand lens. Those toward the base are oblong-hexagonal. The upper and lower leaf surfaces are hairless. The margins are untoothed.

At the end of many stems there is a long stalk (seta) supporting a spore-bearing capsule. The seta is slender, yellow to reddish, and smooth. It is usually ¾ to 1¾ long but may be up to 3 long. It is bent horizontally or nods downward at the tip from the weight of the capsule. It is twisted and bent in opposite directions, becoming entangled with adjacent setae. It usually readily absorbs water from the atmosphere (hygroscopic), twisting as it does.

The capsule is 1 16 to long, pear-shaped, asymmetric, and curved. At the end of the capsule there is an obliquely angled opening. When immature the capsule is light green and the opening is covered with a membranous hood (operculum) and a large, smooth cap (calyptra). The calyptra often has a beak as long or longer than the capsule. As it matures, the capsule develops a ring around the opening (annulus). When mature, the capsule is yellow or orangish-brown to brown. The annulus is large and rolled back. It eventually forces the operculum and calyptra to drop off exposing the capsule opening. Around the opening there are two sets of teeth. The outer teeth are red, lance-shaped, and angled inward, partially covering the opening. The inner teeth are yellow, narrower, and two-thirds as long as the outer teeth. The capsules become furrowed with age. Spores are dispersed late spring to mid-summer.

 
Similar
Species

American funaria moss (Funaria americana) seta are shorter, no more than long. The capsules are smaller, no more than 1 16long. They are smooth and do not become furrowed with age. There is no annulus.


Distribution Distribution Map  

Sources: 3, 4, 24, 29, 30, 79.


Comments

 


Taxonomy

Phylum:

Bryophyta (mosses and liverworts)

 

Class:

Bryopsida (true mosses)

 

Subclass:

Funariidae

 

Order:

Funariales

 

Family:

Funariaceae

 
Synonyms

Funaria hygrometrica var. convoluta

Funaria hygrometrica var. patula

Funaria hygrometrica var. utahensis

 
Common
Names

bonfire moss

common cord-moss

funaria moss

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Glossary

Annulus

On mosses: a ring of cells around the capsule opening beneath the operculum.

 

Calypter

On mosses: A thin cap that covers and protects the capsule and operculum and drops off at maturity.

 

Operculum

On mosses: A lid or cover that covers the opening of a capsule and detatches at maturity.

 

Rhizoid

A filament arising from the lower stem of a moss, liverwort, or alga that anchors it to a substrate.

 

Seta

In Lepidoptera: A usually rigid bristle- or hair-like outgrowth used to sense touch. In mosses:The stalk supporting a spore-bearing capsule and supplying it with nutrients. Plural: setae.

       

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Luciearl


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  Funaria
Ch-09 Life Sciences, Botany, Zoology, Bio-Science
 
   
 
About

Published on Sep 27, 2017

CEC 09: Life Sciences Managed By UGC/CEC

 
     
  Funaria Lecture, BSc Botany by Dr. Ruby Singh Parmar.
Guru Kpo
 
   
 
About

Published on Jul 10, 2013

This video is about life cycle of "Funaria" .In this video morphology and reproduction of Funaria has been discussed.

 
     

 

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Luciearl
10/9/2018

Location: Cass County

bonfire moss


     
     
 

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