great waterleaf

(Hydrophyllum appendiculatum)

Conservation Status
great waterleaf
  IUCN Red List

not listed

     
  NatureServe

NNR - Unranked

SNR - Unranked

     
  Minnesota

not listed

     
           
           
 
Description
 
 

Great waterleaf is a 1 to 4 tall, erect, biennial forb that rises on a single stem from a taproot.

The stems are erect and densely hairy above the middle with both short and long, stiff, spreading hairs. They tend to zigzag between the leaves.

Basal leaves are on stalks up to 6¾ long and deeply divided into 5 or 7 lobes (pinnatifid) cut almost to the midrib.

Stem leaves are alternate and on shorter stalks, the stalks becoming gradually shorter as they ascend the stem. The blades are broadly circular in outline, 2 to 6 in diameter. They are shallowly palmately divided into usually 5 or sometimes 7 lobes, giving them a maple-like appearance. The angle between the lobes is greater than 90°. The base of the leaf is either straight across or has a broad, V-shaped indentation where it connects to the stalk.

All leaves are dark green on the upper surface and often, but not always, have pale green or whitish markings that resemble water spots. The under surface is silvery green. The lobes come to a sharp point at the tip. The margins have shallow teeth.

The inflorescence is loose, rounded clusters rising on densely hairy stalks from the upper leaf axils and at the end of the stems.

The individual flowers are bell-shaped, to ½ long on densely hairy stalks. The flower stalks have short, appressed, ascending hairs. They have 5 lavender to pinkish-purple, rarely white, petals, fused over half their length into a broad tube, then separating into 5 erect, flat-tipped lobes. There are 5 stamens with hairy filaments. The stamens and style extend only slightly beyond the petals.

The fruit is a 1-chambered capsule with 1 to 3 seeds.

 
     
 

Height

 
 

1 to 4

 
     
 

Flower Color

 
 

Lavender to pinkish-purple

 
     
 

Similar Species

 
  Virginia waterleaf (Hydrophyllum virginianum var. virginianum) is a somewhat smaller plant with more deeply divided leaves and short hairs on the stems. It reaches no more than 30 at maturity. The basal and stem leaves are deeply divided into usually 5 lobes. The petals are lavender to white. The upper stems, the inflorescence stalk, and the individual flower stalks have short, appressed hairs, no long hairs. The stamens and style extend well beyond the petals. It is found throughout Minnesota.  
     
 
Habitat
 
 

Moist to wet. Woods.

 
     
 
Biology
 
 

Flowering

 
 

May to July

 
     
 
Use
 
 

 

 
     
 
Distribution
 
 

Distribution Map

 

Sources

2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 28, 30.

 
  6/10/2019      
         
 

Nativity

 
 

Native

 
         
 

Occurrence

 
 

 

 
         
 
Taxonomy
 
  Kingdom Plantae (green algae and land plants)  
  Subkingdom Viridiplantae (green plants)  
  Infrakingdom Streptophyta (land plants and green algae)  
  Superdivision Embryophyta (land plants)  
  Division Tracheophyta (vascular plants)  
  Subdivision Spermatophytina (seed plants)  
  Class Magnoliopsida (flowering plants)  
  Superorder Asteranae  
 

Order

Boraginales  
 

Family

Hydrophyllaceae (waterleaf)  
  Subfamily Hydrophylloideae  
 

Genus

Hydrophyllum (waterleaf)  
       
 

Subordinate Taxa

 
 

 

 
       
 

Synonyms

 
 

Decemium appendiculatum

 
       
 

Common Names

 
 

appendaged waterleaf

great waterleaf

 
       

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Glossary

Palmate

Similar to a hand. Having more than three lobes or leaflets that radiate from a single point at the base of the leaf.

 

Pinnatifid

Deeply cut, more than half way to the midrib but not to the midrib, into lobes that are spaced out along the midrib; the lobes do not form separate leaflets.

 

Rhizome

A horizontal, usually underground stem. It serves as a reproductive structure, producing roots below and shoots above at the nodes.

       
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Plant

  great waterleaf    
       

Inflorescence

  great waterleaf   great waterleaf
       

Flowers

  great waterleaf    
       

Stem Leaves

  great waterleaf    
       
       

 

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Other Videos
 
  Flower longhorn beetle and Bee visit Hydrophyllum appendiculatum flowers
Robert Klips
 
   
 
About

Uploaded on Jun 12, 2010

A flower longhorn beetle and a bee on flowers of appendaged waterleaf (Hydrophyllum appendiculatum) at a woodland in Delaware, Ohio, USA on May 19, 2010.

   
       

 

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