lily-leaved twayblade

(Liparis liliifolia)

               
Conservation Status

IUCN Red List

not listed

lily-leaved twayblade

 

NatureServe

N5 - Secure

SNR - Unranked

Minnesota

not listed

Wetland
Indicator
Status

Midwest

FACU - Facultative upland

Northcentral & Northeast

FACU - Facultative upland

Nativity

Native

Occurrence

Widespread and common in the east, scattered to rare in Minnesota

Habitat

Moderately moist to moderately dry. Open, upland hardwood woodlands; small woodland openings; and woodland trails. Partial sun to light shade.

Flowering

Early June to early July

Flower Color

Brownish-purple

 
Height

3½ to 10½

 
 
Identification

Lily-leaved twayblade is a 3½ to 10½ tall, erect, perennial forb that rises on two basal leaves and a single stem from a bulb-like storage organ (corm) and fibrous roots. It occurs in eastern United States from Maine to Minnesota, south to North Carolina and Arkansas, and in southern Ontario. In Minnesota it occurs from the driftless area in the southeast to just north of the St. Cloud area, with isolated populations in Itasca and Watonwan Counties.

The corm, called a pseudobulb, is white, egg-shaped, ¾ long, and wide. It is just below the soil surface and is partially wrapped (sheathed) by the bases of the leaves and by other small modified leaves (bracts). Each year, at the leaf node near the base of the stem, a new pseudobulb is produced from which the next year’s leaves and stem will rise. The previous year’s pseudobulb is usually also present, connected by a short underground stem (rhizome).

The basal leaves are slightly succulent, glossy, egg-shaped to elliptic, 1½ to 7 long, and ¾ to 3¾ wide. They are 1½ to 3 times longer than wide, usually more than 1½ wide. They are broadly or narrowly pointed at the tip and sheath the pseudobulb at the base. The upper and lower surfaces are hairless. The margins are untoothed.

The stem is stout, somewhat angled, leafless, hairless, bright green, and sometimes tinged purplish brown.

The inflorescence is a 1½ to 6 long, loose, unbranched arrangement (raceme) of 5 to 31 flowers at the end of the stem. Each flower is on a slender, hairless, reddish-purple stalk (pedicel) that is 5 16 to 9 16 (8 to 14 mm) long including the ovary at the base of the flower. At the base of each pedicel there is a tiny, triangular, 1 16 (2 mm) long, 1 32 (1 mm) wide bract.

Each flower is about ¾ to 1 wide. There are 3 sepals, 3 petals, 1 stamen, and 1 reproductive column. The sepals are yellowish-green, narrowly lance-shaped to linear, 5 16 to 7 16 long, and 1 32 (1.2 mm) to 1 16 (2 mm) wide. During development the flower twists 180° (resupinate) so that, when mature, the upper petal (lip) appears to be the lower. The lateral petals are brownish-purple, narrowly linear to thread-like, 5 16 to ½ (8 to 12 mm) long, and no more than 1 64 (0.2 to 0.3 mm) wide. They are curved and hang downward. The lip is egg-shaped, more or less flat, abruptly pointed at the tip (apiculate), 5 16 to ½ (8 to 12 mm) long, and to ¾ wide. It is pale brownish-purple with darker purple veins. The column consists of the style fused to the filament of the single stamen. It is (3 to 4 mm) long, 1 32 to 1 16 (1.0 to 1.5 mm) wide, and is winged near the top. The anther is yellow.

The fruit is a slightly winged, ellipse-shaped, (15 mm) long, 3 16 (5 mm) wide capsule at the end of a 7 16 to 11 16 (11 to 18 mm) long pedicel. Each capsule contains numerous seeds. After the flowers drop off in late summer the cluster of erect, green, seed capsules at the end of a bare green stem rising from persistent green basal leaves is distinctive.

 
Similar
Species

Fen orchid (Liparis loeselii) basal leaves are narrow, 3 to 6 times longer than wide. They no more than 2 wide and are usually less than 1½ wide. The lip is green or yellowish green and is much smaller, no more than 3 16 (5.5 mm) long. The pedicel of the fruiting capsule is much shorter, no more than ¼ (7 mm) long. It is found in wetlands, not uplands.

 
Distribution Distribution Map  

Sources: 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 25, 28, 29, 30, 72.

 
Comments

Decreasing
Lily-leaved twayblade grows in upland oak forests with partial sun or light shade. It is declining in Minnesota due to loss of habitat and to forest management practices. It has been recorded historically, but is now presumed extirpated, in Wright, Sherburne, and Anoka Counties. It may be decreasing in part due to fire suppression and forest succession, as oak forest is overtaken by maples and basswood and becomes more densely shaded.

 
Taxonomy

Family:

Orchidaceae (orchid)

 

Subfamily:

Epidendroideae

 

Subfamily:

Epidendroideae

 

Tribe:

Malaxideae

 

Subtribe:

Malaxidinae

 
Synonyms

 

 
Common
Names

brown widelip orchid

large twayblade

lily-leaved twayblade

mauve sleekwort

purple twayblade

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Glossary

Apiculate

Ending in a short, abrupt, flexible point.

 

Bract

Modified leaf at the base of a flower stalk or flower cluster.

 

Column

The united filaments and style of an orchid. The structure formed by the united filaments of plants in the Mallow family.

 

Corm

A short, solid, vertical, thickened, underground stem that serves as a storage organ.

 

Linear

Long, straight, and narrow, with more or less parallel sides, like a blade of grass.

 

Node

The small swelling of the stem from which one or more leaves, branches, or buds originate.

 

Pedicel

In plants: the stalk of a single flower in a cluster of flowers. In Hymenoptera and Araneae: the narrow stalk connecting the thorax to the abdomen.

 

Resupinate

In fungi: referring to the fruiting body lying flat on the surface of the substrate, without a stalk or a cap. In orchids: referring to flowers twisted 180° at the base during development so that when mature the upper petal appears to be the lower.

 

Rhizome

A horizontal, usually underground stem. It serves as a reproductive structure, producing roots below and shoots above at the nodes.

 

Succulent

Having thick leaves, stems, or roots that store water. Succulent tissues appear fleshy externally and juicy internally.

 

Wing

A thin, flat, membranous, usually transparent appendage on the margin of a structure.

       
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Plant

  lily-leaved twayblade   lily-leaved twayblade
       
  lily-leaved twayblade   lily-leaved twayblade
       

Inflorescence

  lily-leaved twayblade   lily-leaved twayblade
       
  lily-leaved twayblade    
       

Flower

  lily-leaved twayblade    
       

Leaves

  lily-leaved twayblade    
       

Fruiting Plant

  lily-leaved twayblade   lily-leaved twayblade
       

Fruit

  lily-leaved twayblade   lily-leaved twayblade
       
       

 

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Created: 10/5/2019

Last Updated:

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