lily-leaved twayblade

(Liparis liliifolia)

Conservation Status
lily-leaved twayblade
 
  IUCN Red List

not listed

     
  NatureServe

N5 - Secure

SNR - Unranked

     
  Minnesota

not listed

     
           
Wetland Indicator Status
     
  Midwest

FACU - Facultative upland

     
  Northcentral & Northeast

FACU - Facultative upland

     
           
 
Description
 
 

Lily-leaved twayblade is a 3½ to 10½ tall, erect, perennial forb that rises on two basal leaves and a single stem from a bulb-like storage organ (corm) and fibrous roots. It occurs in eastern United States from Maine to Minnesota, south to North Carolina and Arkansas, and in southern Ontario. In Minnesota it occurs from the driftless area in the southeast to just north of the St. Cloud area, with isolated populations in Itasca and Watonwan Counties.

The corm, called a pseudobulb, is white, egg-shaped, ¾ long, and wide. It is just below the soil surface and is partially wrapped (sheathed) by the bases of the leaves and by other small modified leaves (bracts). Each year, at the leaf node near the base of the stem, a new pseudobulb is produced from which the next year’s leaves and stem will rise. The previous year’s pseudobulb is usually also present, connected by a short underground stem (rhizome).

The basal leaves are slightly succulent, glossy, egg-shaped to elliptic, 1½ to 7 long, and ¾ to 3¾ wide. They are 1½ to 3 times longer than wide, usually more than 1½ wide. They are broadly or narrowly pointed at the tip and sheath the pseudobulb at the base. The upper and lower surfaces are hairless. The margins are untoothed.

The stem is stout, somewhat angled, leafless, hairless, bright green, and sometimes tinged purplish brown.

The inflorescence is a 1½ to 6 long, loose, unbranched arrangement (raceme) of 5 to 31 flowers at the end of the stem. Each flower is on a slender, hairless, reddish-purple stalk (pedicel) that is 5 16 to 9 16 (8 to 14 mm) long including the ovary at the base of the flower. At the base of each pedicel there is a tiny, triangular, 1 16 (2 mm) long, 1 32 (1 mm) wide bract.

Each flower is about ¾ to 1 wide. There are 3 sepals, 3 petals, 1 stamen, and 1 reproductive column. The sepals are yellowish-green, narrowly lance-shaped to linear, 5 16 to 7 16 long, and 1 32 (1.2 mm) to 1 16 (2 mm) wide. During development the flower twists 180° (resupinate) so that, when mature, the upper petal (lip) appears to be the lower. The lateral petals are brownish-purple, narrowly linear to thread-like, 5 16 to ½ (8 to 12 mm) long, and no more than 1 64 (0.2 to 0.3 mm) wide. They are curved and hang downward. The lip is egg-shaped, more or less flat, abruptly pointed at the tip (apiculate), 5 16 to ½ (8 to 12 mm) long, and to ¾ wide. It is pale brownish-purple with darker purple veins. The column consists of the style fused to the filament of the single stamen. It is (3 to 4 mm) long, 1 32 to 1 16 (1.0 to 1.5 mm) wide, and is winged near the top. The anther is yellow.

The fruit is a slightly winged, ellipse-shaped, (15 mm) long, 3 16 (5 mm) wide capsule at the end of a 7 16 to 11 16 (11 to 18 mm) long pedicel. Each capsule contains numerous seeds. After the flowers drop off in late summer the cluster of erect, green, seed capsules at the end of a bare green stem rising from persistent green basal leaves is distinctive.

 
     
 

Height

 
 

3½ to 10½

 
     
 

Flower Color

 
 

Brownish-purple

 
     
 

Similar Species

 
  Fen orchid (Liparis loeselii) basal leaves are narrow, 3 to 6 times longer than wide. They no more than 2 wide and are usually less than 1½ wide. The lip is green or yellowish green and is much smaller, no more than 3 16 (5.5 mm) long. The pedicel of the fruiting capsule is much shorter, no more than ¼ (7 mm) long. It is found in wetlands, not uplands.  
     
 
Habitat
 
 

Moderately moist to moderately dry. Open, upland hardwood woodlands; small woodland openings; and woodland trails. Partial sun to light shade.

 
     
 
Biology
 
 

Flowering

 
 

Early June to early July

 
     
 
Use
 
 

 

 
     
 
Distribution
 
 

Distribution Map

 

Sources

2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 24, 25, 28, 29, 30, 72.

Lily-leaved twayblade has been recorded historically, but is now presumed extirpated, in Wright, Sherburne, and Anoka Counties.

 
  10/5/2019      
         
 

Nativity

 
 

Native

 
         
 

Occurrence

 
 

Widespread and common in the east, scattered to rare in Minnesota.

Lily-leaved twayblade is declining in Minnesota due to loss of habitat and to forest management practices. It grows in upland oak forests with partial sun or light shade. It may be decreasing in part due to fire suppression and forest succession, as oak forest is overtaken by maple and basswood and becomes more densely shaded.

 
         
 
Taxonomy
 
  Kingdom Plantae (green algae and land plants)  
  Subkingdom Viridiplantae (green plants)  
  Infrakingdom Streptophyta (land plants and green algae)  
  Superdivision Embryophyta (land plants)  
  Division Tracheophyta (vascular plants)  
  Subdivision Spermatophytina (seed plants)  
  Class Liliopsida (monocots)  
 

Order

Asparagales (agaves, orchids, irises, and allies)  
 

Family

Orchidaceae (orchids)  
  Subfamily Epidendroideae  
  Tribe Malaxideae  
  Subtribe Malaxidinae  
 

Genus

Liparis (widelip orchid)  
       
 

Synonyms

 
 

 

 
       
 

Common Names

 
 

brown widelip orchid

large twayblade

lily-leaved twayblade

mauve sleekwort

purple twayblade

 
       

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Glossary

Apiculate

Ending in a short, abrupt, flexible point.

 

Bract

Modified leaf at the base of a flower stalk, flower cluster, or inflorescence.

 

Column

The united filaments and style of an orchid. The structure formed by the united filaments of plants in the Mallow family.

 

Corm

A short, solid, vertical, thickened, underground stem that serves as a storage organ.

 

Linear

Long, straight, and narrow, with more or less parallel sides, like a blade of grass.

 

Node

The small swelling of the stem from which one or more leaves, branches, or buds originate.

 

Pedicel

In plants: the stalk of a single flower in a cluster of flowers. In Hymenoptera and Araneae: the narrow stalk connecting the thorax to the abdomen.

 

Resupinate

In fungi: referring to the fruiting body lying flat on the surface of the substrate, without a stalk or a cap. In orchids: referring to flowers twisted 180° at the base during development so that when mature the upper petal appears to be the lower.

 

Rhizome

A horizontal, usually underground stem. It serves as a reproductive structure, producing roots below and shoots above at the nodes.

 

Succulent

Having thick leaves, stems, or roots that store water. Succulent tissues appear fleshy externally and juicy internally.

 

Wing

A thin, flat, membranous, usually transparent appendage on the margin of a structure.

       
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RC
       
  lily-leaved twayblade    
       
       
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Plant

  lily-leaved twayblade   lily-leaved twayblade
       
  lily-leaved twayblade   lily-leaved twayblade
       

Inflorescence

  lily-leaved twayblade   lily-leaved twayblade
       
  lily-leaved twayblade    
       

Flower

  lily-leaved twayblade    
       

Leaves

  lily-leaved twayblade    
       

Fruiting Plant

  lily-leaved twayblade   lily-leaved twayblade
       

Fruit

  lily-leaved twayblade   lily-leaved twayblade
       
       

 

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RC
6/30/2020

Location: Lake Elmo

lily-leaved twayblade


     
     
 
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Created: 10/5/2019

Last Updated:

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