Savage Fen SNA






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Minnesota DNR

Fen Wetland Complex - City of Savage

The Trust for Public Land








Savage Fen SNA was designated on 11/16/1989. In 2011, the Minnesota DNR acquired a 68-acre parcel that became the Southeast Unit of Savage Fen SNA. On June 12, 2013, the Minnesota DNR and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service completed a land exchange that included four tracts of land, totalling 188.15 acres, adjacent to the SNA. The acquisition connected the Northeast and Southeast Units and greatly expanded the West Unit.




On the East Unit, two small areas were cleared in 2014, one by the designated parking spot, the other in front of the wood routed sign. In the spring of 2015 these were covered with jute fabric and planted with cereal rye for soil stabilization. In 2016 the rye was gone and native species returned.

A 25-acre area at the southeast corner of the West Unit has been the focus of recent management activity. The West Unit has not been burned since 1970. In the winter of 2015-16 woody species were selectively cut down and a fire break was cleared. The smaller stems, shrubs, were left where they were cut. The larger stems, trees, were piled for later removal. Buckthorn was cut and treated with herbicide. Seeds of native grasses and forbs were collected. All in preparation for a prescribed burn in the spring of 2016. That burn has been postponed indefinitely.

In the fall of 2016, removal of native and non-native Phragmites began in two small selected areas. That work continued in the fall of 2017.

In the winter of 2017-18, woody species were cut and removed from the westernmost portion of the West Unit. The trees and shrubs that had been cut and piled in 2015-16 were also removed.








Detail map (MN DNR)


Printable Map(s) with GPS coordinates



  Printable map      

West Unit

  East Unit  
  Printable map   Printable map  



East Unit: 152 acres

West Unit: 136 acres




East Unit
Park to the left of the gate across the utility road. Do not block the gate.

N44 46.458, W93 21.130

West Unit
The paved lot bordering the northwest corner of West Unit is private property. Permission has been granted by the owner to park between the wood routed sign and the SNA corner boundary sign. There is room for two cars. Additional cars should park along 128th St.

N44 46.308, W93 22.357


Driving Directions

  Area and County  

Get driving directions from Google Maps to this destination from any address, and send those directions to your phone.

          Scott County  
          Metro Area  

Hiking Trails


Although there are no maintained trails, there are several trails on the East Unit. A utility road leads from the parking area south into the SNA then west to Quentin Ave. S. The roadbed is raised and should be accessible even during spring flooding. Near the east end of this road a forest road (former USF&WS administrative road) leads south into the forest then west along the base of the bluff. Where the administrative road turns west a well worn trail continues straight up the bluff. This trail and a few connecting trails lead west and south to a housing development.

The land acquired from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service in 2013 came with the stipulation that a bike trail be constructed through the East Unit. A potential trail was surveyed in 2014. The route follows the old forest road along the base of the bluff. It was subsequently determined that the proposed route could not be made in compliance with the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990.




Archery only. See Hunting and Trapping Regulations (MN DNR) for details.


Ecological Classification

  Ecological Classification  
  Ecological Province    

Eastern Broadleaf Forest Province

  Ecological Section    

Minnesota & NE Iowa Morainal

  Ecological Subsection    

Big Woods

  Land Type Association    

Elko Moraine

Le Sueur Alluvial Plain


Native Plant Communities*


Calcareous Fen (Southeastern)

Elm - Basswood - Black Ash - (Hackberry) Forest

Mesic Prairie (Southern)

Seepage Meadow/Carr

Sugar Maple - Basswood - (Bitternut Hickory) Forest

  * Source: The Minnesota Biological Survey, Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, Division of Ecological Resources      

Natural Features






Waterproof footwear recommended

The seepage meadow and fen areas may have some standing water year round. Narrow intermittent and perennial streams are completely hidden from view by leaning grasses and sedges. Waterproof footwear is recommended.





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East Unit



    Savage Fen SNA, East Unit   Savage Fen SNA, East Unit  

Wood Routed Sign

    Savage Fen SNA, East Unit      

Interpretive Sign

    Savage Fen SNA, East Unit      

Utility Road

    Savage Fen SNA, East Unit   Savage Fen SNA, East Unit  

Old Forest Road

    Savage Fen SNA, East Unit      

Chain Link Fence

    Savage Fen SNA, East Unit   Savage Fen SNA, East Unit  

Cinderblock Wall

    Savage Fen SNA, East Unit   Savage Fen SNA, East Unit  

Duck Pond

    Savage Fen SNA, East Unit   Savage Fen SNA, East Unit  


    Savage Fen SNA, East Unit   Savage Fen SNA, East Unit  


    Savage Fen SNA, East Unit   Savage Fen SNA, East Unit  

Credit River

    Savage Fen SNA, East Unit   Savage Fen SNA, East Unit  

Elm - Basswood - Black Ash - (Hackberry) Forest

    Savage Fen SNA, East Unit   Savage Fen SNA, East Unit  

Seepage Meadow/Carr

    Savage Fen SNA, East Unit   Savage Fen SNA, East Unit  

Sugar Maple - Basswood - (Bitternut Hickory) Forest

    Savage Fen SNA, East Unit   Savage Fen SNA, East Unit  

West Unit



    Savage Fen SNA, West Unit   Savage Fen SNA, West Unit  


    Savage Fen SNA   Savage Fen SNA  

Wood Routed Sign

    Savage Fen SNA   Savage Fen SNA  

Interpretive Sign

    Savage Fen SNA   Savage Fen SNA  

Buried Pipeline

    Savage Fen SNA      

Glacial Erratic

    Savage Fen SNA   Savage Fen SNA  
    Savage Fen SNA      

Perennial Stream

This stream has sunk 16" to 20" into the peat. Protected from cold tempreatures, it remains unfrozen and flowing year round.

  Savage Fen SNA  

East Pond

    Savage Fen SNA   Savage Fen SNA  

Frog Pond

This was once a beaver pond. Beavers were actively hunted here and eventually extirpated. Only frogs live here now.

  Savage Fen SNA  
        Savage Fen SNA  

Seepage Meadow/Carr

    Savage Fen SNA   Savage Fen SNA  

Calcareous Fen (Southeastern)

    Savage Fen SNA      
    Savage Fen SNA   Savage Fen SNA  
    Savage Fen SNA      

Sugar Maple - Basswood - (Bitternut Hickory) Forest

    Savage Fen SNA, East Unit      

Woody Species Removal, Winter 2015-16

    Savage Fen SNA   Savage Fen SNA  

Habitat Restoration


Before restoration, October 2015

  Savage Fen SNA  
  Restoration begins by removing encroaching shrubs and trees, April 2018 Savage Fen SNA  
    Savage Fen SNA   Savage Fen SNA  
  May 2018   Savage Fen SNA  

Sunrise on Savage Fen

    Savage Fen SNA   Savage Fen SNA  

Pussy Willows Flowering in April

    Savage Fen SNA      



Savage Fen SNA
Mikes Orchids
  Savage Fen SNA  

This is a visit to Savage Fen Scientific and Natural Area in Savage Minnesota. Savage Fen is located below the bluffs along the Minnesota River on the south side. It is a unique example of one of Minnesota's rarest plant and animal communities. It is a calcareous fen, meaning that it is a wetland adapted to growing in the highly alkaline water seeping out of the bluffs. The wetland acts like a sponge, absorbing this water and holding it there supporting a unique assembly of plants and animals. See more here:




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Other Videos
  10-28-17 Savage Fen Scientific and Natural Area, MN
Blondie Customer

Jun 2, 2018




Visitor Sightings

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Robert Briggs




bottle gentian (Gentiana andrewsii)

white heath aster (Symphyotrichum ericoides var. ericoides)

  bottle gentian  

Crystal Boyd


Insects and Arachnids


dot-tailed whiteface dragonfly (Leucorrhinia intacta)

monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus)

  dot-tailed whiteface dragonfly  



garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata)

garden yellowrocket (Barbarea vulgaris)





















































































































American toad (Anaxyrus americanus)

Ameroasian treefrogs (Dryophytes spp.)

boreal chorus frog (Pseudacris maculata)

green frog (Rana clamitans)

northern leopard frog (Rana pipiens)

wood frog (Rana sylvatica)

  American toad  

Bacteria, Viruses, and Other Pathogens


apical chlorosis of Canada thistle (Pst) (Pseudomonas syringae pv. tagetis)

shot hole disease (Wilsonomyces carpophilus)




Three bird species with conservation status in Minnesota have been seen here:

Special Concern

American White Pelican (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos)

Hooded Warbler (Setophaga citrina)

Purple Martin (Progne subis)


Minnesota DNR Bird checklist

eBird Field Checklist


American Crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos)

American Goldfinch (Spinus tristis)

American Kestrel (Falco sparverius)

American Redstart (Setophaga ruticilla)

American Robin (Turdus migratorius)

American Woodcock (Scolopax minor)

Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus)

Bank Swallow (Riparia riparia)

Barn Swallow (Hirundo rustica)

Black-capped Chickadee (Poecile atricapillus)

Blue Jay (Cyanocitta cristata)

Broad-winged Hawk (Buteo platypterus)

Brown Creeper (Certhia americana)

Brown Thrasher (Toxostoma rufum)

Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater)

Canada Goose (Branta canadensis)

Cedar Waxwing (Bombycilla cedrorum)

Chipping Sparrow (Spizella passerina)

Clay-colored Sparrow (Spizella pallida)

Common Grackle (Quiscalus quiscula)

Common Yellowthroat (Geothlypis trichas)

Dark-eyed Junco (Junco hyemalis)

Downy Woodpecker (Dryobates pubescens)

Eastern Bluebird (Sialia sialis)

Eastern Kingbird (Tyrannus tyrannus)

Eastern Wood-peewee (Contopus virens)

European Starling (Sturnus vulgaris)

Franklin’s Gull (Leucophaeus pipixcan)

Golden-crowned Kinglet (Regulus satrapa)

Gray Catbird (Dumetella carolinensis)

Great Blue Heron (Ardea herodias)

Great Horned Owl (Bubo virginianus)

Green Heron (Butorides virescens)

Hairy Woodpecker (Leuconotopicus villosus)

Hermit Thrush (Catharus guttatus)

House Finch (Haemorhous mexicanus)

House Wren (Troglodytes aedon)

Killdeer (Charadrius vociferus)

Least Flycatcher (Empidonax minimus)

Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos)

Mourning Dove (Zenaida macroura)

Nashville Warbler (Leiothlypis ruficapilla)

Northern Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis)

Northern Flicker (Colaptes auratus)

Northern Harrier (Circus hudsonius)

Northern Shrike (Lanius borealis)

Olive-sided Flycatcher (Contopus cooperi)

Osprey (Pandion haliaetus)

Ovenbird (Seiurus aurocapilla)

Pileated Woodpecker (Dryocopus pileatus)

Red-bellied Woodpecker (Melanerpes carolinus)

Red-tailed Hawk (Buteo jamaicensis)

Red-winged Blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus)

Ring-billed Gull (Larus delawarensis)

Ring-necked Pheasant (Phasianus colchicus)

Rose-breasted Grosbeak (Pheucticus ludovicianus)

Ruby-throated Hummingbird (Archilochus colubris)

Sandhill Crane (Antigone canadensis)

Sedge Wren (Cistothorus platensis)

Sharp-shinned Hawk (Accipiter striatus)

Solitary Sandpiper (Tringa solitaria)

Song Sparrow (Melospiza melodia)

Tree Swallow (Tachycineta bicolor)

Turkey Vulture (Cathartes aura)

Veery (Catharus fuscescens)

White-breasted Nuthatch (Sitta carolinensis)

Wild Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo)

Wood Duck (Aix sponsa)

Yellow Warbler (Setophaga petechia)

Yellow-bellied Sapsucker (Sphyrapicus varius)


American Goldfinch

American Woodcock

Black-capped Chickadee

Blue Jay

Canada Goose

Chipping Sparrow

Gray Catbird

Green Heron


Mourning Dove

Northern Cardinal

Red-tailed Hawk

Red-winged Blackbird

Song Sparrow

Tree Swallow

White-breasted Nuthatch

Wild Turkey

Yellow-bellied Sapsucker sign




Minnesota Biodiversity Atlas Fishes List


Fungi and Lichens


Minnesota Biodiversity Atlas Fungi List


Aborted Entoloma (Entoloma abortivum)

Artist’s Conk (Ganoderma applanatum)

Atkinson’s Fungi (Cortinarius atkinsonianus)

Black Knot (Apiosporina morbosa)

Blue Cheese Polypore (Tyromyces caesius)

Chicken Fat Mushroom (Suillus americanus)

Chicken of the Woods (Laetiporus sulphureus)

Clustered Clitocybe (Clitocybe subconnexa)

Common Eyelash (Scutellinia scutellata)

Crown Rust (Puccinia coronata)

Dryad’s Saddle (Cerioporus squamosus)

Fairy Fingers (Clavaria fragilis)

False Death Cap (Amanita citrina)

False Turkey Tail (Stereum ostrea)

Giant Puffball (Calvatia gigantea)

Hexagonal-pored Polypore (Neofavolus alveolaris)

Indigo Milk Cap (Lactarius indigo)

Inky Agaricus (Agaricus moelleri)

Lurid Bolete (Boletus luridus)

Mica Cap (Coprinellus micaceus)

Milk-white Toothed Polypore (Irpex lacteus)

Oak Mazegill (Daedalea quercina)

Pear-shaped Puffball (Apioperdon pyriforme)

Peppery Milkcap (Lactifluus piperatus)

Phomopsis gall on hickory (Phomopsis spp.)

Powdery Goldspeck Lichen (Candelariella efflorescens)

Powdery Mildew (Order Erysiphales)

Purple Bordered Leaf Spot (Phyllosticta minima)

Ruddy Puffball (Lycoperdon subincarnatum)

Scarlet Cup (Sarcoscypha austriaca)

Shaggy Mane (Coprinus comatus)

Smooth Patch (Aleurodiscus oakesii)

Split Gill (Schizophyllum commune)

Star Rosette Lichen (Physcia stellaris)

Thin-Walled Maze Polypore (Daedaleopsis confragosa)

Turkey Tail (Trametes versicolor)

Very Dark Omphalina (Arrhenia obscurata)

White Jelly Fungus (Ductifera pululahuana)

Wrinkled Peach (Rhodotus palmatus)

Yellow Morel (Morchella esculentoides)


Artist’s Conk

Atkinson’s Fungi

Dryad’s Saddle

Indigo Milk Cap

Inky Agaricus

Pear-shaped Puffball

Stalked Scarlet Cup

Shaggy Mane

Wrinkled Peach

Yellow Morel


Insects and Arachnids


Minnesota Bee Atlas


American carrion beetle (Necrophila americana)

American lady (Vanessa virginiensis)

ash bead gall mite (Aceria fraxini)

autumn meadowhawk (Sympetrum vicinum)

bald-faced hornet (Dolichovespula maculata)

Baltimore checkerspot (Euphydryas phaeton)

banded argiope (Argiope trifasciata)

black cherry finger gall mite (Eriophyes cerasicrumena)

black swallowtail (Papilio polyxenes)

black-and-gold bumble bee (Bombus auricomus)

black-legged meadow katydid (Orchelimum nigripes)

blue orchard bee (Osmia lignaria lignaria)

cabbage white (Pieris rapae)

Carolina grasshopper (Dissosteira carolina)

chalcid wasp (Melittobia spp.)

clouded sulphur (Colias philodice)

common buckeye (Junonia coenia)

common eastern bumble bee (Bombus impatiens)

common green bottle fly (Lucilia sericata)

common green darner (Anax junius)

common whitetail (Plathemis lydia)

constrained cuckoo carder bee (Stelis coarctatus)

crane fly (Tipulomorpha)

cuckoo wasp (Family Chrysididae)

deer fly (Chrysops spp.)

dog day cicada (Neotibicen canicularis)

dot-tailed whiteface (Leucorrhinia intacta)

eastern boxelder bug (Boisea trivittata)

eastern giant swallowtail (Papilio cresphontes)

eastern tailed-blue (Cupido comyntas)

eastern tent caterpillar moth (Malacosoma americanum)

eastern tiger swallowtail (Papilio glaucus)

ebony jewelwing (Calopteryx maculata)

elm bead gall mite (Aceria campestricola)

elm finger gall mite (Aceria parulmi)

eyed brown (Lethe eurydice)

flat-tailed leaf-cutter bee (Megachile mendica)

four-spotted skimmer (Libellula quadrimaculata)

goldenrod bunch gall midge (Rhopalomyia solidaginis)

goldenrod gall fly (Eurosta solidaginis)

goldenrod soldier beetle (Chauliognathus pennsylvanicus)

graceful grasshopper (Melanoplus gracilis)

grape gall midge (Schizomyia vitiscoryloides)

grape leaf miner moth (Phyllocnistis vitegenella)

grape leaf miner moth (Phyllocnistis vitifoliella)

grape phylloxera (Daktulosphaira vitifoliae)

grass-carrying wasp (Isodontia mexicana)

great black digger wasp (Sphex pensylvanicus)

great spangled fritillary (Argynnis cybele)

green immigrant leaf weevil (Polydrusus formosus)

green stink bug (Chinavia hilaris)

hackberry nipplegall maker (Pachypsylla celtidismamma)

hairy rockcress (Arabis pycnocarpa var. pycnocarpa)

half-black bumble bee (Bombus vagans)

Halloween pennant (Celithemis eponina)

Hobomok skipper (Lon hobomok)

honeysuckle aphid (Hyadaphis tataricae)

ichneumon wasp (Family Ichneumonidae)

Isabella tiger moth (Pyrrharctia isabella)

Japanese beetle (Popillia japonica)

leaf-footed bug (Acanthocephala terminalis)

little wood satyr (Megisto cymela)

little yellow (Pyrisitia lisa lisa)

maple spindle-gall mite (Vasates aceriscrumena)

milkweed tussock moth (Euchaetes egle)

monarch (Danaus plexippus)

mourning cloak (Nymphalis antiopa)

multicolored Asian lady beetle (Harmonia axyridis)

northern crescent (Phyciodes cocyta)

northern paper wasp (Polistes fuscatus)

northern pearly eye (Lethe anthedon)

northern walkingstick (Diapheromera femorata)

oak flake gall wasp (Neuroterus floccosus)

oil beetle (Meloe impressus)

orange sulphur (Colias eurytheme)

painted lady (Vanessa cardui)

pearl crescent (Phyciodes tharos)

plum finger gall mite (Eriophyes emarginatae)

polished lady beetle (Cycloneda munda)

question mark (Polygonia interrogationis)

red admiral (Vanessa atalanta)

red milkweed beetle (Tetraopes tetrophthalmus)

red-spotted purple (Limenitis arthemis astyanax)

resin bee (Heriades carinata)

rodent bot fly (Cuterebra spp.)

seven-spotted lady beetle (Coccinella septempunctata)

shadow darner (Aeshna umbrosa)

shield-backed bug (Homaemus aeneifrons)

silver-spotted skipper (Epargyreus clarus)

smeared dagger (Acronicta oblinita)

snowberry clearwing (Hemaris diffinis)

spotted cucumber beetle (Diabrotica undecimpunctata)

spotted pink lady beetle (Coleomegilla maculata)

spring azure (Celastrina ladon)

summer azure (Celastrina neglecta)

thirteen-spotted lady beetle (Hippodamia tredecimpunctata)

twelve-spotted skimmer (Libellula pulchella)

twice-stabbed stink bug (Cosmopepla lintneriana)

two-spotted bumble bee (Bombus bimaculatus)

two-striped grasshopper (Melanoplus bivittatus)

viceroy (Limenitis archippus)

Virginia ctenucha (Ctenucha virginica)

western honey bee (Apis mellifera)

western thatching ant (Formica obscuripes)

white snakeroot leaf miner (Liriomyza eupatoriella)

white-faced meadowhawk (Sympetrum obtrusum)

widow skimmer (Libellula luctuosa)

willow leaf gall (Pontania sp.)

willow pinecone gall midge (Rabdophaga strobiloides)

willow rosette gall midge (Rabdophaga salicisbrassicoides)

yellow slant-line (Tetracis crocallata)

yellow-legged mud-dauber (Sceliphron caementarium)


American lady

bald-faced hornet Nest

Baltimore checkerspot

yellow-legged mud-dauber

Carolina grasshopper

common buckeye

common green darner

eastern tailed-blue

eastern tent caterpillar

ebony jewelwing

graceful grasshopper

great spangled fritillary

green stink bug

Halloween pennant

Hobomok skipper

Isabella tiger moth

Japanese beetle


mourning cloak

northern crescent

northern paper wasp

oil beetle

red admiral

red-spotted purple


Virginia ctenucha

willow pinecone gall midge

yellow slant-line




American beaver (Castor canadensis)

American red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus)

coyote (Canis latrans)

eastern chipmunk (Tamias striatus)

eastern cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus)

eastern gray squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis)

meadow vole (Microtus pennsylvanicus)

northern short-tailed shrew (Blarina brevicauda)

plains pocket gopher (Geomys bursarius)

striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis)

Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana)

whitetail deer (Odocoileus virginianus)

woodchuck (Marmota monax)


eastern gray squirrel

eastern cottontail

whitetail deer




Nine plant species with conservation status in Minnesota are found here:


beaked spike-rush (Eleocharis rostellata)

brown-eyed Susan (Rudbeckia triloba var. triloba)

edible valerian (Valeriana edulis var. ciliata)

hair-like beak-rush (Rhynchospora capillacea)

sterile sedge (Carex sterilis)

whorled nut-rush (Scleria verticillata)

Special Concern

Hill’s thistle (Cirsium pumilum var. hillii)

small white lady’s slipper (Cypripedium candidum)

smooth sawgrass (Cladium mariscoides)


Minnesota Biodiversity Atlas and Minnesota Biological Survey Vegetation Releves Plant List


Plants frequently found in:

Calcareous Fen (Southeastern) OPp93c

Elm - Basswood - Black Ash - (Hackberry) Forest MHs49a

Mesic Prairie (Southern) UPs23a

Seepage Meadow/Carr WMs83a1

Sugar Maple - Basswood - (Bitternut Hickory) Forest MHs39a



absinthe wormwood (Artemisia absinthium)

alfalfa (Medicago sativa ssp. sativa)

Allegheny blackberry (Rubus allegheniensis)

Allegheny monkeyflower (Mimulus ringens var. ringens)

alsike clover (Trifolium hybridum)

American basswood (Tilia americana var. americana)

American bittersweet (Celastrus scandens)

American black currant (Ribes americanum)

American bugleweed (Lycopus americanus)

American burnweed (Erechtites hieraciifolius var. hieraciifolius)

American common reed (Phragmites australis ssp. americanus)

American cow parsnip (Heracleum maximum)

American elderberry (Sambucus canadensis)

American elm (Ulmus americana)

American germander (Teucrium canadense)

American groundnut (Apios americana)

American hazelnut (Corylus americana)

American highbush cranberry (Viburnum opulus var. americanum)

American hog peanut (Amphicarpaea bracteata var. bracteata)

American hophornbeam (Ostrya virginiana var. virginiana)

American lopseed (Phryma leptostachya)

American plum (Prunus americana)

American red raspberry (Rubus idaeus ssp. strigosus)

American spikenard (Aralia racemosa ssp. racemosa)

American stinging nettle (Urtica gracilis ssp. gracilis)

American vetch (Vicia americana ssp. americana)

Amur maple (Acer ginnala)

annual fleabane (Erigeron annuus)

arctic brome (Bromus kalmii)

arrow-leaved aster (Symphyotrichum urophyllum)

Aunt Lucy (Ellisia nyctelea)

Balkan catchfly (Silene csereii)

balsam groundsel (Packera paupercula)

barnyard grass (Echinochloa crus-galli)

bastard toadflax (Comandra umbellata)

beaked hazelnut (Corylus cornuta var. cornuta)

Bebb’s sedge (Carex bebbii)

Bebb’s willow (Salix bebbiana)

Bell’s honeysuckle (Lonicera × bella)

big bluestem (Andropogon gerardi)

Bigelow’s bottlebrush grass (Elymus hystrix var. bigeloviana)

bigleaf aster (Eurybia macrophylla)

bigtooth aspen (Populus grandidentata)

bird’s-foot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus var. corniculatus)

bitternut hickory (Carya cordiformis)

bittersweet nightshade (Solanum dulcamara)

black ash (Fraxinus nigra)

black bindweed (Fallopia convolvulus)

black cherry (Prunus serotina var. serotina)

black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia)

black medick (Medicago lupulina)

black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis)

black walnut (Juglans nigra)

black-eyed Susan (Rudbeckia hirta var. pulcherrima)

black-seeded plantain (Plantago rugelii var. rugelii)

bland sweet cicely (Osmorhiza claytonii)

bloodroot (Sanguinaria canadensis)

blue cohosh (Caulophyllum thalictroides)

blue giant hyssop (Agastache foeniculum)

Blue Ridge carrionflower (Smilax lasioneura)

blue vervain (Verbena hastata)

bog birch (Betula pumila)

bottle gentian (Gentiana andrewsii)

bouncing bet (Saponaria officinalis)

boxelder (Acer negundo var. negundo)

bracted vervain (Verbena bracteata)

branching centaury (Centaurium pulchellum)

bristly buttercup (Ranunculus hispidus var. nitidus)

bristly greenbrier (Smilax tamnoides)

bristly sedge (Carex comosa)

broad-leaved cattail (Typha latifolia)

broadleaf enchanter’s nightshade (Circaea canadensis)

brown mustard (Brassica juncea)

brown-eyed Susan (Rudbeckia triloba var. triloba)

bulbet-bearing water hemlock (Cicuta bulbifera)

bull thistle (Cirsium vulgare)

bur oak (Quercus macrocarpa var. macrocarpa)

Buxbaum’s sedge (Carex buxbaumii)

calico aster (Symphyotrichum lateriflorum)

Canada anemone (Anemonastrum canadense)

Canada bluegrass (Poa compressa)

Canada lettuce (Lactuca canadensis)

Canada mayflower (Maianthemum canadense)

Canada moonseed (Menispermum canadense)

Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense)

Canada wildrye (Elymus canadensis)

Canadian clearweed (Pilea pumila)

Canadian honewort (Cryptotaenia canadensis)

Canadian horseweed (Erigeron canadensis)

Canadian milkvetch (Astragalus canadensis var. canadensis)

Canadian tick-trefoil (Desmodium canadense)

Canadian wild ginger (Asarum canadense)

Canadian woodnettle (Laportea canadensis)

candle anemone (Anemone cylindrica)

catnip (Nepeta cataria)

celandine (chelidonium majus)

cereal rye (Secale cereale)

cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum)

chokecherry (Prunus virginiana var. virginiana)

clammy groundcherry (Physalis heterophylla)

cleavers (Galium aparine)

climbing false buckwheat (Fallopia scandens)

clustered black snakeroot (Sanicula odorata)

common barberry (Berberis vulgaris)

common blue violet (Viola sororia)

common boneset (Eupatorium perfoliatum var. perfoliatum)

common buckthorn (Rhamnus cathartica)

common bur-reed (Sparganium eurycarpum)

common burdock (Arctium minus)

common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale ssp. officinale)

common dodder (Cuscuta gronovii)

common dogmustard (Erucastrum gallicum)

common duckweed (Lemna minor)

common evening primrose (Oenothera biennis)

common false Solomon’s seal (Maianthemum racemosum var. racemosum)

common hop (Humulus lupulus var. lupuloides)

common hop (Humulus lupulus var. pubescens)

common juniper (Juniperus communis var. depressa)

common lilac (Syringa vulgaris)

common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca)

common motherwort (Leonurus cardiaca ssp. cardiaca)

common mullein (Verbascum thapsus ssp. thapsus)

common obedient plant (Physostegia virginiana ssp. virginiana)

common plantain (Plantago major)

common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia)

common self-heal (Prunella vulgaris ssp. vulgaris)

common sneezeweed (Helenium autumnale)

common spikerush (Eleocharis palustris)

common three-square (Schoenoplectus pungens)

common yarrow (Achillea millefolium)

crabgrass (Digitaria sp.)

crested sedge (Carex cristatella)

crested wood fern (Dryopteris cristata)

crown vetch (Securigera varia)

Culver’s root (Veronicastrum virginicum)

cup plant (Silphium perfoliatum var. perfoliatum)

curly dock (Rumex crispus)

curlytop knotweed (Persicaria lapathifolia)

cursed crowfoot (Ranunculus sceleratus)

cut-leaved coneflower (Rudbeckia laciniata var. laciniata)

dame’s rocket (Hesperis matronalis ssp. matronalis)

dark green bulrush (Scirpus atrovirens)

desert false indigo (Amorpha fruticosa)

devil’s beggarticks (Bidens frondosa)

Dewey’s sedge (Carex deweyana)

downy phlox (Phlox pilosa ssp. fulgida)

downy yellow violet (Viola pubescens)

Dudley’s rush (Juncus dudleyi)

Dutchman’s breeches (Dicentra cucullaria)

dwarf raspberry (Rubus pubescens)

early figwort (Scrophularia lanceolata)

early horse gentian (Triosteum aurantiacum var. aurantiacum)

early meadow-rue (Thalictrum dioicum)

eastern false rue anemone (Enemion biternatum)

eastern marsh fern (Thelypteris palustris var. pubescens)

eastern prickly gooseberry (Ribes cynosbati)

eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana var. virginiana)

eastern star sedge (Carex radiata)

eastern swamp saxifrage (Micranthes pensylvanica)

eastern white pine (Pinus strobus)

eastern woodland sedge (Carex blanda)

edible valerian (Valeriana edulis var. ciliata)

European black alder (Alnus glutinosa)

European common reed (Phragmites australis ssp. australis)

European cranberrybush (Viburnum opulus var. opulus)

false boneset (Brickellia eupatorioides var. corymbulosa)

falsegold groundsel (Packera pseudaurea var. semicordata)

fen grass of Parnassus (Parnassia glauca)

field horsetail (Equisetum arvense)

field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense)

field peppergrass (Lepidium campestre)

field sagewort (Artemisia campestris ssp. caudata)

field thistle (Cirsium discolor)

fiveangled dodder (Cuscuta pentagona)

flat-stemmed spike-rush (Eleocharis compressa)

flat-topped aster (Doellingeria umbellata var. umbellata)

four-flowered yellow loosestrife (Lysimachia quadriflora)

fowl bluegrass (Poa palustris)

fowl mannagrass (Glyceria striata)

fox sedge (Carex vulpinoidea)

foxtail barley (Hordeum jubatum ssp. jubatum)

fragrant bedstraw (Galium triflorum)

fragrant sumac (Rhus aromatica var. aromatica)

fringed brome (Bromus ciliatus)

fringed loosestrife (Lysimachia ciliata)

fringed willowherb (Epilobium ciliatum ssp. ciliatum)

garden yellowrocket (Barbarea vulgaris)

garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata)

giant chickweed (Myosoton aquaticum)

giant foxtail (Setaria faberi)

giant goldenrod (Solidago gigantea)

giant ragweed (Ambrosia trifida)

giant sumpweed (Cyclachaena xanthiifolia)

giant sunflower (Helianthus giganteus)

glossy buckthorn (Frangula alnus)

golden alexanders (Zizia aurea)

golden ragwort (Packera aurea)

graceful sedge (Carex gracillima)

grass-leaved goldenrod (Euthamia graminifolia)

gray dogwood (Cornus racemosa)

gray goldenrod (Solidago nemoralis)

gray-headed coneflower (Ratibida pinnata)

great blue lobelia (Lobelia siphilitica var. ludoviciana)

great blue lobelia (Lobelia siphilitica var. siphilitica)

Great Plains ladies’ tresses (Spiranthes magnicamporum)

great St. Johnswort (Hypericum ascyron ssp. pyramidatum)

great water dock (Rumex britannica)

green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica)

green foxtail (Setaria viridis var. viridis)

ground ivy (Glechoma hederacea)

hairy hedge nettle (Stachys pilosa var. pilosa)

hairy panic grass (Dichanthelium acuminatum)

hairy Solomon’s seal (Polygonatum pubescens)

hairy vetch (Vicia villosa ssp. villosa)

hard-stem bulrush (Schoenoplectus acutus var. acutus)

hedge bindweed (Calystegia sepium)

hedge mustard (Sisymbrium officinale)

hemlock water-parsnip (Sium suave)

hoary alyssum (Berteroa incana)

hoary puccoon (Lithospermum canescens)

hoary vervain (Verbena stricta)

hooked buttercup (Ranunculus recurvatus var. recurvatus)

hybrid cattail (Typha × glauca)

Indian hemp (Apocynum cannabinum)

Indiangrass (Sorghastrum nutans)

inland sedge (Carex interior)

interrupted fern (Claytosmunda claytoniana)

jack-in-the-pulpit (Arisaema triphyllum)

Japanese hedge parsley (Torilis japonica)

Japanese hop (Humulus japonicus)

Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus)

Kalm’s lobelia (Lobelia kalmii)

Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis ssp. pratensis)

kidney-leaved buttercup (Ranunculus abortivus)

lake sedge (Carex lacustris)

large yellow lady’s slipper (Cypripedium parviflorum var. pubescens)

large-flowered bellwort (Uvularia grandiflora)

large-leaved avens (Geum macrophyllum var. perincisum)

late goldenrod (Solidago altissima)

late horse gentian (Triosteum perfoliatum)

leafy spurge (Euphorbia virgata)

lesser clearweed (Pilea fontana)

lesser fringed gentian (Gentianopsis virgata ssp. virgata)

lily-leaved twayblade (Liparis liliifolia)

limber honeysuckle (Lonicera dioica)

limestone meadow sedge (Carex granularis)

Lindley’s aster (Symphyotrichum ciliolatum)

long-beaked sedge (Carex sprengelii)

long-leaved bluet (Houstonia longifolia)

long-leaved chickweed (Stellaria longifolia)

lowland hog peanut (Amphicarpaea bracteata var. comosa)

marijuana (Cannabis indica)

marsh bellflower (Campanula aparinoides)

marsh hedge nettle (Stachys palustris)

marsh skullcap (Scutellaria galericulata)

marsh vetchling (Lathyrus palustris)

Maryland black snakeroot (Sanicula marilandica)

Maximilian’s sunflower (Helianthus maximiliani)

meadow garlic (Allium canadense var. canadense)

meadow horsetail (Equisetum pratense)

Michigan lily (Lilium michiganense)

Minnesota wildrye (Elymus diversiglumis)

Missouri gooseberry (Ribes missouriense)

Morrow’s honeysuckle (Lonicera morrowii)

nannyberry (Viburnum lentago)

narrow-leaved cattail (Typha angustifolia)

narrow-leaved hawk’s-beard (Crepis tectorum)

narrow-leaved purple coneflower (Echinacea angustifolia)

New England aster (Symphyotrichum novae-angliae)

nodding bur marigold (Bidens cernua)

nodding fescue (Festuca subverticillata)

nodding trillium (Trillium cernuum)

northern bedstraw (Galium boreale)

northern bog violet (Viola nephrophylla)

northern bugleweed (Lycopus uniflorus)

northern catalpa (Catalpa speciosa)

northern hackberry (Celtis occidentalis)

northern lady fern (Athyrium filix-femina var. angustum)

northern maidenhair (Adiantum pedatum)

northern pin oak (Quercus ellipsoidalis)

northern plains blazing star (Liatris ligulistylis)

northern prickly ash (Zanthoxylum americanum)

northern red oak (Quercus rubra)

northern reed grass (Calamagrostis stricta ssp. inexpansa)

northern shagbark hickory (Carya ovata)

northern small yellow lady’s slipper (Cypripedium parviflorum var. makasin)

northern water plantain (Alisma triviale)

northern white cedar (Thuja occidentalis)

orange daylily (Hemerocallis fulva)

orchard grass (Dactylis glomerata ssp. glomerata)

ostrich fern (Matteuccia struthiopteris var. pensylvanica)

owlfruit sedge (Carex stipata var. stipata)

oxeye daisy (Leucanthemum vulgare)

pagoda dogwood (Cornus alternifolia)

pale touch-me-not (Impatiens pallida)

paleleaf woodland sunflower (Helianthus strumosus)

palespike lobelia (Lobelia spicata)

panicled aster (Symphyotrichum lanceolatum)

path rush (Juncus tenuis)

peachleaf willow (Salix amygdaloides)

Pennsylvania buttercup (Ranunculus pensylvanicus)

Pennsylvania pellitory (Parietaria pensylvanica)

Pennsylvania sedge (Carex pensylvanica)

Pennsylvania smartweed (Persicaria pensylvanica)

perennial sow thistle (Sonchus arvensis)

Philadelphia fleabane (Erigeron philadelphicus var. philadelphicus)

pineapple-weed (Matricaria discoidea)

plains cottonwood (Populus deltoides ssp. molinifera)

pointed-leaved tick-trefoil (Hylodesmum glutinosum)

poke milkweed (Asclepias exaltata)

porcupine grass (Hesperostipa spartea)

porcupine sedge (Carex hystericina)

prairie alumroot (Heuchera richardsonii)

prairie blazing star (Liatris pycnostachya var. pycnostachya)

prairie blue-eyed grass (Sisyrinchium campestre)

prairie cordgrass (Sporobolus michauxianus)

prairie dropseed (Sporobolus heterolepis)

prairie fleabane (Erigeron strigosus)

prairie groundsel (Packera plattensis)

prairie ironweed (Vernonia fasciculata ssp. fasciculata)

prairie peppergrass (Lepidium densiflorum)

prairie rose (Rosa arkansana)

prairie sedge (Carex prairea)

prickly sow thistle (Sonchus asper)

purple giant hyssop (Agastache scrophulariifolia)

purple lovegrass (Eragrostis spectabilis)

purple meadow-rue (Thalictrum dasycarpum)

purple prairie clover (Dalea purpurea var. purpurea)

purple rattlesnake root (Nabalus racemosus)

purpleleaf willowherb (Epilobium coloratum)

purple-stem angelica (Angelica atropurpurea)

purple-stem aster (Symphyotrichum puniceum var. puniceum)

purple-stem beggarticks (Bidens connata)

pussy willow (Salix discolor)

quackgrass (Elymus repens)

quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides)

quill sedge (Carex tenera)

Queen Anne’s lace (Daucus carota ssp. carota)

rabbit-tobacco (Pseudognaphalium obtusifolium)

red baneberry (Actaea rubra ssp. rubra)

red clover (Trifolium pratense)

red elderberry (Sambucus racemosa var. racemosa)

red mulberry (Morus rubra)

red osier dogwood (Cornus sericea ssp. sericea)

redtop (Agrostis gigantea)

reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea)

rice cutgrass (Leersia oryzoides)

Riddell’s goldenrod (Solidago riddellii)

rigid sedge (Carex tetanica)

river bulrush (Bolboschoenus fluviatilis)

roadside agrimony (Agrimonia striata)

rock elm (Ulmus thomasii)

rope dodder (Cuscuta glomerata)

rose twisted-stalk (Streptopus lanceolatus var. longipipes)

rosy sedge (Carex rosea)

rough avens (Geum laciniatum)

rough bedstraw (Galium asprellum)

rough bentgrass (Agrostis scabra)

rough blazing star (Liatris aspera)

rough cinquefoil (Potentilla norvegica)

rough cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium)

round-leaved dogwood (Cornus rugosa)

rue anemone (Thalictrum thalictroides)

Russian olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia)

sandbar willow (Salix interior)

Sartwell’s sedge (Carex sartwellii)

sawtooth sunflower (Helianthus grosseserratus)

sawtooth wormwood (Artemisia serrata)

Scribner’s panic grass (Dichanthelium oligosanthes ssp. scribnerianum)

seaside arrowgrass (Triglochin maritima)

Seneca snakeroot (Polygala senega)

sensitive fern (Onoclea sensibilis)

sessile-leaf bellwort (Uvularia sessilifolia)

shaggy soldier (Galinsoga quadriradiata)

shepherd’s purse (Capsella bursa-pastoris)

shining bedstraw (Galium concinnum)

showy goldenrod species complex (Solidago speciosa complex)

shrubby cinquefoil (Dasiphora fruticosa ssp. floribunda)

Siberian elm (Ulmus pumila)

silky dogwood (Cornus obliqua)

silver maple (Acer saccharinum)

sky-blue aster (Symphyotrichum oolentangiense var. oolentangiense)

sleepy catchfly (Silene antirrhina)

slender beardtongue (Penstemon gracilis var. gracilis)

slender willow (Salix petiolaris)

slim-stem reedgrass (Calamagrostis stricta)

slippery elm (Ulmus rubra)

small white lady’s slipper (Cypripedium candidum)

small-spike false nettle (Boehmeria cylindrica)

smooth blue aster (Symphyotrichum laeve)

smooth brome (Bromus inermis)

smooth carrionflower (Smilax herbacea)

smooth hedge nettle (Stachys tenuifolia)

smooth oxeye (Heliopsis helianthoides var. scabra)

smooth rose (Rosa blanda var. blanda)

smooth sawgrass (Cladium mariscoides)

smooth scouring rush (Equisetum laevigatum)

smooth Solomon’s seal (Polygonatum biflorum var. commutatum)

smooth sumac (Rhus glabra)

smooth yellow violet (Viola eriocarpa)

snakeskin liverwort (Conocephalum salebrosum)

soft agrimony (Agrimonia pubescens)

soft-stem bulrush (Schoenoplectus tabernaemontani)

southern blue flag (Iris virginica var. shrevei)

spiked muhly (Muhlenbergia glomerata)

spinulose wood fern (Dryopteris carthusiana)

spotted Joe Pye weed (Eutrochium maculatum)

spotted knapweed (Centaurea stoebe ssp. micranthos)

spotted lady’s thumb (Persicaria maculosa)

spotted touch-me-not (Impatiens capensis)

spotted water hemlock (Cicuta maculata)

spreading dogbane (Apocynum androsaemifolium)

spring cress (Cardamine bulbosa)

staghorn sumac (Rhus typhina)

starry false Solomon’s seal (Maianthemum stellatum)

sterile sedge (Carex sterilis)

stiff cowbane (Oxypolis rigidior)

stiff goldenrod (Solidago rigida ssp. rigida)

stiff sunflower (Helianthus pauciflorus ssp. pauciflorus)

sugar maple (Acer saccharum ssp. saccharum)

sulphur cinquefoil (Potentilla recta)

swamp betony (Pedicularis lanceolata)

swamp milkweed (Asclepias incarnata ssp. incarnata)

swamp thistle (Cirsium muticum)

sweet Joe Pye weed (Eutrochium purpureum)

sweet woodreed (Cinna arundinacea)

switch grass (Panicum virgatum var. virgatum)

tall beggarticks (Bidens vulgata)

tall bellflower (Campanulastrum americanum)

tall blue lettuce (Lactuca biennis)

tall cottongrass (Eriophorum angustifolium ssp. angustifolium)

tall goldenrod (Solidago altissima var. altissima)

tall thimbleweed (Anemone virginiana)

tall thistle (Cirsium altissimum)

Tatarian honeysuckle (Lonicera tatarica)

timothy (Phleum pratense ssp. pratense)

tower mustard (Turritis glabra)

tufted hairgrass (Deschampsia cespitosa)

tussock sedge (Carex stricta)

upright carrionflower (Smilax ecirrhata)

veiny pea (Lathyrus venosus var. intonsus)

velvet-leaf (Abutilon theophrasti)

violet wood sorrel (Oxalis violacea)

Virginia creeper (Parthenocissus quinquefolia)

Virginia groundcherry (Physalis virginiana var. virginiana)

Virginia mountain mint (Pycnanthemum virginianum)

Virginia stickseed (Hackelia virginiana)

Virginia waterleaf (Hydrophyllum virginianum var. virginianum)

Virginia wildrye (Elymus virginicus)

virgin’s bower (Clematis virginiana)

water horsetail (Equisetum fluviatile)

water smartweed (Persicaria amphibia)

water speedwell (Veronica catenata)

western poison ivy (Toxicodendron rydbergii)

white avens (Geum canadense)

white camas (Anticlea elegans ssp. glauca)

white campion (Silene latifolia ssp. alba)

white clover (Trifolium repens ssp. repens)

white heath aster (Symphyotrichum ericoides var. ericoides)

white oak (Quercus alba)

white poplar (Populus alba)

white prairie clover (Dalea candida var. candida)

white rattlesnake root (Nabalus albus)

white sage (Artemisia ludoviciana ssp. ludoviciana)

white snakeroot (Ageratina altissima var. altissima)

white spruce (Picea glauca)

white sweet clover (Melilotus albus)

white turtlehead (Chelone glabra)

white vervain (Verbena urticifolia)

whorled milkweed (Asclepias verticillata)

wild bergamot (Monarda fistulosa)

wild columbine (Aquilegia canadensis)

wild cucumber (Echinocystis lobata)

wild geranium (Geranium maculatum)

wild grape (Vitis riparia)

wild leek (Allium tricoccum)

wild mint (Mentha arvensis)

wild parsnip (Pastinaca sativa)

wild sarsaparilla (Aralia nudicaulis)

wild strawberry (Fragaria virginiana)

willow herb (Epilobium sp.)

witch grass (Panicum capillare)

wolfberry (Symphoricarpos occidentalis)

wood anemone (Anemone quinquefolia var. quinquefolia)

wood millet (Milium effusum)

woodbine (Parthenocissus vitacea)

woodland horsetail (Equisetum sylvaticum)

woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca ssp. americana)

wool grass (Scirpus cyperinus)

woolly sedge (Carex pellita)

worm-seed wallflower (Erysimum cheiranthoides)

woundwort (Stachys pilosa var. arenicola)

yellow avens (Geum aleppicum)

yellow foxtail (Setaria pumila ssp. pumila)

yellow goat’s beard (Tragopogon dubius)

yellow marsh marigold (Caltha palustris var. palustris)

yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus var. leptostachyus)

yellow star grass (Hypoxis hirsuta)

yellow sweet clover (Melilotus officinalis)

yellow wood sorrel (Oxalis stricta)

zigzag goldenrod (Solidago flexicaulis)


Abutilon theophrasti (velvet-leaf)

Acer ginnala (Amur maple)

Acer negundo var. negundo (boxelder)

Acer saccharinum (silver maple)

Acer saccharum ssp. saccharum (sugar maple)

Achillea millefolium (common yarrow)

Actaea rubra ssp. rubra (red baneberry)

Adiantum pedatum (northern maidenhair)

Agastache foeniculum (blue giant hyssop)

Agastache scrophulariifolia (purple giant hyssop)

Ageratina altissima var. altissima (white snakeroot)

Agrimonia pubescens (soft agrimony)

Agrimonia striata (roadside agrimony)

Agrostis gigantea (redtop)

Agrostis scabra (rough bentgrass)

Alisma triviale (northern water plantain)

Alliaria petiolata (garlic mustard)

Allium canadense var. canadense (meadow garlic)

Allium tricoccum (wild leek)

Alnus glutinosa (European black alder)

Ambrosia artemisiifolia (common ragweed)

Ambrosia trifida (giant ragweed)

Amorpha fruticosa (desert false indigo)

Amphicarpaea bracteata var. bracteata (hog peanut)

Amphicarpaea bracteata var. comosa (lowland hog peanut)

Andropogon gerardi (big bluestem)

Anemonastrum canadense (Canada anemone)

Anemone cylindrica (candle anemone)

Anemone quinquefolia var. quinquefolia (wood anemone)

Anemone virginiana (tall thimbleweed)

Angelica atropurpurea (purple-stem angelica)

Anticlea elegans ssp. glauca (white camas)

Apios americana (American groundnut)

Apocynum androsaemifolium (spreading dogbane)

Apocynum cannabinum (Indian hemp)

Aquilegia canadensis (wild columbine)

Aralia nudicaulis (wild sarsaparilla)

Aralia racemosa ssp. racemosa (American spikenard)

Arctium minus (common burdock)

Arisaema triphyllum (Jack-in-the-pulpit)

Artemisia absinthium (absinthe wormwood)

Artemisia campestris ssp. caudata (field sagewort)

Artemisia ludoviciana ssp. ludoviciana (white sage)

Artemisia serrata (sawtooth wormwood)

Asarum canadense (Canadian wild ginger)

Asclepias exaltata (poke milkweed)

Asclepias incarnata ssp. incarnata (swamp milkweed)

Asclepias syriaca (common milkweed)

Asclepias verticillata (whorled milkweed)

Astragalus canadensis var. canadensis (Canadian milkvetch)

Athyrium filix-femina var. angustum (northern lady fern)

Barbarea vulgaris (garden yellowrocket)

Berberis vulgaris (common barberry)

Berteroa incana (hoary alyssum)

Betula pumila (bog birch)

Bidens cernua (nodding bur marigold)

Bidens connata (purple-stem beggarticks)

Bidens frondosa (devil’s beggarticks)

Bidens vulgata (tall beggarticks)

Boehmeria cylindrica (small-spike false nettle)

Bolboschoenus fluviatilis (river bulrush)

Brassica juncea (brown mustard)

Brickellia eupatorioides var. corymbulosa (false boneset)

Bromus ciliatus (fringed brome)

Bromus inermis (smooth brome)

Bromus kalmii (arctic brome)

Bromus tectorum (cheatgrass)

Calamagrostis stricta (slim-stem reedgrass)

Calamagrostis stricta ssp. inexpansa (northern reed grass)

Caltha palustris var. palustris (yellow marsh marigold)

Calystegia sepium (hedge bindweed)

Campanula aparinoides (marsh bellflower)

Campanulastrum americanum (tall bellflower)

Cannabis indica (marijuana)

Capsella bursa-pastoris (shepherd’s purse)

Cardamine bulbosa (spring cress)

Carex bebbii (Bebb’s sedge)

Carex blanda (eastern woodland sedge)

Carex buxbaumii (Buxbaum’s sedge)

Carex comosa (bristly sedge)

Carex cristatella (crested sedge)

Carex deweyana (Dewey’s sedge)

Carex gracillima (graceful sedge)

Carex granularis (limestone meadow sedge)

Carex hystericina (porcupine sedge)

Carex interior (inland sedge)

Carex lacustris (lake sedge)

Carex pellita (woolly sedge)

Carex pensylvanica (Pennsylvania sedge)

Carex prairea (prairie sedge)

Carex radiata (eastern star sedge)

Carex rosea (rosy sedge)

Carex sartwellii (Sartwell’s sedge)

Carex sprengelii (long-beaked sedge)

Carex sterilis (sterile sedge)

Carex stipata var. stipata (owlfruit sedge)

Carex stricta (tussock sedge)

Carex tenera (quill sedge)

Carex tetanica (rigid sedge)

Carex vulpinoidea (fox sedge)

Carya cordiformis (bitternut hickory)

Carya ovata (northern shagbark hickory)

Catalpa speciosa (northern catalpa)

Caulophyllum thalictroides (blue cohosh)

Celastrus scandens (American bittersweet)

Celtis occidentalis (northern hackberry)

Centaurea stoebe ssp. micranthos (spotted knapweed)

Centaurium pulchellum (branching centaury)

chelidonium majus (celandine)

Chelone glabra (white turtlehead)

Cicuta bulbifera (bulbet-bearing water hemlock)

Cicuta maculata (spotted water hemlock)

Cinna arundinacea (sweet woodreed)

Circaea canadensis (broadleaf enchanter’s nightshade)

Cirsium altissimum (tall thistle)

Cirsium arvense (Canada thistle)

Cirsium discolor (field thistle)

Cirsium muticum (swamp thistle)

Cirsium vulgare (bull thistle)

Cladium mariscoides (smooth sawgrass)

Clematis virginiana (virgin’s bower)

Comandra umbellata (bastard toadflax)

Conocephalum salebrosum (snakeskin liverwort)

Cornus alternifolia (pagoda dogwood)

Cornus obliqua (silky dogwood)

Cornus racemosa (gray dogwood)

Cornus rugosa (round-leaved dogwood)

Cornus sericea ssp. sericea (red osier dogwood)

Corylus americana (American hazelnut)

Corylus cornuta var. cornuta (beaked hazelnut)

Crepis tectorum (narrow-leaved hawk’s-beard)

Cryptotaenia canadensis (Canadian honewort)

Cuscuta glomerata (rope dodder)

Cuscuta gronovii (common dodder)

Cuscuta pentagona (fiveangled dodder)

Cyclachaena xanthiifolia (giant sumpweed)

Cyperus esculentus var. leptostachyus (yellow nutsedge)

Cypripedium candidum (small white lady’s slipper)

Cypripedium parviflorum var. makasin (northern small yellow lady’s slipper)

Cypripedium parviflorum var. pubescens (large yellow lady’s slipper)

Dactylis glomerata ssp. glomerata (orchard grass)

Dalea candida var. candida (white prairie clover)

Dalea purpurea var. purpurea (purple prairie clover)

Dasiphora fruticosa ssp. floribunda (shrubby cinquefoil)

Daucus carota ssp. carota (Queen Anne’s lace)

Deschampsia cespitosa (tufted hairgrass)

Desmodium canadense (Canadian tick-trefoil)

Dicentra cucullaria (Dutchman’s breeches)

Dichanthelium acuminatum (hairy panic grass)

Dichanthelium oligosanthes ssp. scribnerianum (Scribner’s panic grass)

Digitaria sp. (crabgrass)

Doellingeria umbellata var. umbellata (flat-topped aster)

Dryopteris carthusiana (spinulose wood fern)

Dryopteris cristata (crested wood fern)

Echinacea angustifolia (narrow-leaved purple coneflower)

Echinochloa crus-galli (barnyard grass)

Echinocystis lobata (wild cucumber)

Elaeagnus angustifolia (Russian olive)

Eleocharis compressa (flat-stemmed spike-rush)

Eleocharis palustris (common spikerush)

Ellisia nyctelea (Aunt Lucy)

Elymus canadensis (Canada wildrye)

Elymus diversiglumis (Minnesota wildrye)

Elymus hystrix var. bigeloviana (Bigelow’s bottlebrush grass)

Elymus repens (quackgrass)

Elymus virginicus (Virginia wildrye)

Enemion biternatum (eastern false rue anemone)

Epilobium ciliatum ssp. ciliatum (fringed willowherb)

Epilobium coloratum (purpleleaf willowherb)

Epilobium spp. (willowherbs)

Equisetum arvense (field horsetail)

Equisetum fluviatile (water horsetail)

Equisetum laevigatum (smooth scouring rush)

Equisetum pratense (meadow horsetail)

Equisetum sylvaticum (woodland horsetail)

Eragrostis spectabilis (purple lovegrass)

Erechtites hieraciifolius var. hieraciifolius (American burnweed)

Erigeron annuus (annual fleabane)

Erigeron canadensis (Canadian horseweed)

Erigeron philadelphicus var. philadelphicus (Philadelphia fleabane)

Erigeron strigosus (prairie fleabane)

Eriophorum angustifolium ssp. angustifolium (tall cottongrass)

Erucastrum gallicum (common dogmustard)

Erysimum cheiranthoides (worm-seed wallflower)

Eupatorium perfoliatum var. perfoliatum (common boneset)

Euphorbia virgata (leafy spurge)

Eurybia macrophylla (bigleaf aster)

Euthamia graminifolia (grass-leaved goldenrod)

Eutrochium maculatum (spotted Joe Pye weed)

Eutrochium purpureum (sweet Joe Pye weed)

Fallopia convolvulus (black bindweed)

Fallopia scandens (climbing false buckwheat)

Festuca subverticillata (nodding fescue)

Fragaria vesca ssp. americana (woodland strawberry)

Fragaria virginiana (wild strawberry)

Frangula alnus (glossy buckthorn)

Fraxinus nigra (black ash)

Fraxinus pennsylvanica (green ash)

Galinsoga quadriradiata (shaggy soldier)

Galium aparine (cleavers)

Galium asprellum (rough bedstraw)

Galium boreale (northern bedstraw)

Galium concinnum (shining bedstraw)

Galium triflorum (fragrant bedstraw)

Gentiana andrewsii (bottle gentian)

Gentianopsis virgata ssp. virgata (lesser fringed gentian)

Geranium maculatum (wild geranium)

Geum aleppicum (yellow avens)

Geum canadense (white avens)

Geum laciniatum (rough avens)

Geum macrophyllum var. perincisum (large-leaved avens)

Glechoma hederacea (ground ivy)

Glyceria striata (fowl mannagrass)

Hackelia virginiana (Virginia stickseed)

Helenium autumnale (common sneezeweed)

Helianthus giganteus (giant sunflower)

Helianthus grosseserratus (sawtooth sunflower)

Helianthus maximiliani (Maximilian’s sunflower)

Helianthus pauciflorus ssp. pauciflorus (stiff sunflower)

Helianthus strumosus (paleleaf woodland sunflower)

Helianthus tuberosus (Jerusalem artichoke)

Heliopsis helianthoides var. scabra (smooth oxeye)

Hemerocallis fulva (orange daylily)

Heracleum maximum (American cow parsnip)

Hesperis matronalis ssp. matronalis (dame’s rocket)

Hesperostipa spartea (porcupine grass)

Heuchera richardsonii (prairie alumroot)

Hordeum jubatum ssp. jubatum (foxtail barley)

Houstonia longifolia (long-leaved bluet)

Humulus japonicus (Japanese hop)

Humulus lupulus var. lupuloides (common hop)

Humulus lupulus var. pubescens (common hop)

Hydrophyllum virginianum var. virginianum (Virginia waterleaf)

Hylodesmum glutinosum (pointed-leaved tick-trefoil)

Hypericum ascyron ssp. pyramidatum (great St. Johnswort)

Hypoxis hirsuta (yellow star grass)

Impatiens capensis (spotted touch-me-not)

Impatiens pallida (pale touch-me-not)

Iris virginica var. shrevei (southern blue flag)

Juglans nigra (black walnut)

Juncus dudleyi (Dudley’s rush)

Juncus tenuis (path rush)

Juniperus communis var. depressa (common juniper)

Juniperus virginiana var. virginiana (eastern redcedar)

Lactuca biennis (tall blue lettuce)

Lactuca canadensis (Canada lettuce)

Laportea canadensis (Canadian woodnettle)

Lathyrus palustris (marsh vetchling)

Lathyrus venosus var. intonsus) (veiny pea)

Leersia oryzoides (rice cutgrass)

Lemna minor (common duckweed)

Leonurus cardiaca ssp. cardiaca (common motherwort)

Lepidium campestre (field peppergrass)

Lepidium densiflorum (prairie peppergrass)

Leucanthemum vulgare (oxeye daisy)

Liatris aspera (rough blazing star)

Liatris ligulistylis (northern plains blazing star)

Liatris pycnostachya var. pycnostachya (prairie blazing star)

Lilium michiganense (Michigan lily)

Liparis liliifolia (lily-leaved twayblade)

Lithospermum canescens (hoary puccoon)

Lobelia kalmii (Kalm’s lobelia)

Lobelia siphilitica var. ludoviciana (great blue lobelia)

Lobelia siphilitica var. siphilitica (great blue lobelia)

Lobelia spicata (palespike lobelia)

Lonicera × bella (Bell’s honeysuckle)

Lonicera dioica (limber honeysuckle)

Lonicera morrowii (Morrow’s honeysuckle)

Lonicera tatarica (Tatarian honeysuckle)

Lotus corniculatus var. corniculatus (bird’s-foot trefoil)

Lycopus americanus (American bugleweed)

Lycopus uniflorus (northern bugleweed)

Lysimachia ciliata (fringed loosestrife)

Lysimachia quadriflora (four-flowered yellow loosestrife)

Maianthemum canadense (Canada mayflower)

Maianthemum racemosum var. racemosum (common false Solomon’s seal)

Maianthemum stellatum (starry false Solomon’s seal)

Matricaria discoidea (pineapple-weed)

Matteuccia struthiopteris var. pensylvanica (ostrich fern)

Medicago lupulina (black medick)

Medicago sativa ssp. sativa (alfalfa)

Melilotus albus (white sweet clover)

Melilotus officinalis (yellow sweet clover)

Menispermum canadense (Canada moonseed)

Mentha arvensis (wild mint)

Micranthes pensylvanica (eastern swamp saxifrage)

Milium effusum (wood millet)

Mimulus ringens var. ringens (Allegheny monkeyflower)

Monarda fistulosa (wild bergamot)

Morus rubra (red mulberry)

Muhlenbergia glomerata (spiked muhly)

Myosoton aquaticum (giant chickweed)

Nabalus albus (white rattlesnake root)

Nabalus racemosus (purple rattlesnake root)

Nepeta cataria (catnip)

Oenothera biennis (common evening primrose)

Solidago riddellii (Riddell’s goldenrod)

Onoclea sensibilis (sensitive fern)

Osmorhiza claytonii (bland sweet cicely)

Claytosmunda claytoniana (interrupted fern)

Ostrya virginiana var. virginiana (American hophornbeam)

Oxalis stricta (yellow wood sorrel)

Oxalis violacea (violet wood sorrel)

Oxypolis rigidior (stiff cowbane)

Packera aurea (golden ragwort)

Packera paupercula (balsam groundsel)

Packera plattensis (prairie groundsel)

Packera pseudaurea var. semicordata (falsegold groundsel)

Panicum capillare (witch grass)

Panicum virgatum var. virgatum (switch grass)

Parietaria pensylvanica (Pennsylvania pellitory)

Parnassia glauca (fen grass of Parnassus)

Parthenocissus quinquefolia (Virginia creeper)

Parthenocissus vitacea (woodbine)

Pastinaca sativa (wild parsnip)

Pedicularis lanceolata (swamp betony)

Penstemon gracilis var. gracilis (slender beardtongue)

Persicaria amphibia (water smartweed)

Persicaria lapathifolia (curlytop knotweed)

Persicaria maculosa (spotted lady’s thumb)

Persicaria pensylvanica (Pennsylvania smartweed)

Phalaris arundinacea (reed canary grass)

Phleum pratense ssp. pratense (timothy)

Phlox pilosa ssp. fulgida (downy phlox)

Phragmites australis ssp. americanus (American common reed)

Phragmites australis ssp. australis (European common reed)

Phryma leptostachya (American lopseed)

Physalis heterophylla (clammy groundcherry)

Physalis virginiana var. virginiana (Virginia groundcherry)

Physostegia virginiana var. virginiana (common obedient plant)

Picea glauca (white spruce)

Pilea fontana (lesser clearweed)

Pilea pumila (Canadian clearweed)

Pinus strobus (eastern white pine)

Plantago major (common plantain)

Plantago rugelii var. rugelii (black-seeded plantain)

Poa compressa (Canada bluegrass)

Poa palustris (fowl bluegrass)

Poa pratensis ssp. pratensis (Kentucky bluegrass)

Polygala senega (Seneca snakeroot)

Polygonatum biflorum var. commutatum (smooth Solomon’s seal)

Polygonatum pubescens (hairy Solomon’s seal)

Populus alba (white poplar)

Populus deltoides ssp. molinifera (plains cottonwood)

Populus grandidentata (bigtooth aspen)

Populus tremuloides (quaking aspen)

Potentilla norvegica (rough cinquefoil)

Potentilla recta (sulphur cinquefoil)

Prunella vulgaris ssp. vulgaris (common self-heal)

Prunus americana (American plum)

Prunus serotina var. serotina (black cherry)

Prunus virginiana var. virginiana (chokecherry)

Pseudognaphalium obtusifolium (rabbit-tobacco)

Pycnanthemum virginianum (Virginia mountain mint)

Quercus alba (white oak)

Quercus ellipsoidalis (northern pin oak)

Quercus macrocarpa var. macrocarpa (bur oak)

Quercus rubra (northern red oak)

Ranunculus abortivus (kidney-leaved buttercup)

Ranunculus hispidus var. nitidus (bristly buttercup)

Ranunculus pensylvanicus (Pennsylvania buttercup)

Ranunculus recurvatus var. recurvatus (hooked buttercup)

Ranunculus sceleratus (cursed crowfoot)

Ratibida pinnata (gray-headed coneflower)

Rhamnus cathartica (common buckthorn)

Rhus aromatica var. aromatica (fragrant sumac)

Rhus glabra (smooth sumac)

Rhus typhina (staghorn sumac)

Ribes americanum (American black currant)

Ribes cynosbati (eastern prickly gooseberry)

Ribes missouriense (Missouri gooseberry)

Robinia pseudoacacia (black locust)

Rosa arkansana (prairie rose)

Rosa blanda var. blanda (smooth rose)

Rubus allegheniensis (Allegheny blackberry)

Rubus idaeus ssp. strigosus (American red raspberry)

Rubus occidentalis (black raspberry)

Rubus pubescens (dwarf raspberry)

Rudbeckia hirta var. pulcherrima (black-eyed Susan)

Rudbeckia laciniata var. laciniata (cut-leaved coneflower)

Rudbeckia triloba var. triloba (brown-eyed Susan)

Rumex britannica (great water dock)

Rumex crispus (curly dock)

Salix amygdaloides (peachleaf willow)

Salix bebbiana (Bebb’s willow)

Salix discolor (pussy willow)

Salix interior (sandbar willow)

Salix petiolaris (slender willow)

Sambucus canadensis (American elderberry)

Sambucus racemosa var. racemosa (red elderberry)

Sanguinaria canadensis (bloodroot)

Sanicula marilandica (Maryland black snakeroot)

Sanicula odorata (clustered black snakeroot)

Saponaria officinalis (bouncing bet)

Schoenoplectus acutus var. acutus (hard-stem bulrush)

Schoenoplectus pungens (common three-square)

Schoenoplectus tabernaemontani (soft-stem bulrush)

Scirpus atrovirens (dark green bulrush)

Scirpus cyperinus (wool grass)

Scrophularia lanceolata (early figwort)

Scutellaria galericulata (marsh skullcap)

Secale cereale (cereal rye)

Securigera varia (crown vetch)

Setaria faberi (giant foxtail)

Setaria pumila ssp. pumila (yellow foxtail)

Setaria viridis var. viridis (green foxtail)

Silene antirrhina (sleepy catchfly)

Silene csereii (Balkan catchfly)

Silene latifolia ssp. alba (white campion)

Silphium perfoliatum var. perfoliatum (cup plant)

Sisymbrium officinale (hedge mustard)

Sisyrinchium campestre (prairie blue-eyed grass)

Sium suave (hemlock water-parsnip)

Smilax ecirrhata (upright carrionflower)

Smilax herbacea (smooth carrionflower)

Smilax lasioneura (Blue Ridge carrionflower)

Smilax tamnoides (bristly greenbrier)

Solanum dulcamara (bittersweet nightshade)

Solidago altissima (late goldenrod)

Solidago altissima var. altissima (tall goldenrod)

Solidago flexicaulis (zigzag goldenrod)

Solidago gigantea (giant goldenrod)

Solidago nemoralis (gray goldenrod)

Solidago rigida ssp. rigida (stiff goldenrod)

Solidago speciosa complex (showy goldenrod species complex)

Sonchus arvensis (perennial sow thistle)

Sonchus asper (prickly sow thistle)

Sorghastrum nutans (Indiangrass)

Sparganium eurycarpum (common bur-reed)

Spiranthes magnicamporum (Great Plains ladies’ tresses)

Sporobolus heterolepis (prairie dropseed)

Sporobolus michauxianus (prairie cordgrass)

Stachys palustris (marsh hedge nettle)

Stachys pilosa var. arenicola (woundwort)

Stachys pilosa var. pilosa (hairy hedge nettle)

Stachys tenuifolia (smooth hedge nettle)

Stellaria longifolia (long-leaved chickweed)

Streptopus lanceolatus var. longipipes (rose twisted-stalk)

Symphoricarpos occidentalis (wolfberry)

Symphyotrichum ciliolatum (Lindley’s aster)

Symphyotrichum ericoides var. ericoides (white heath aster)

Symphyotrichum laeve (smooth blue aster)

Symphyotrichum lanceolatum (panicled aster)

Symphyotrichum lateriflorum (calico aster)

Symphyotrichum novae-angliae (New England aster)

Symphyotrichum oolentangiense var. oolentangiense (sky-blue aster)

Symphyotrichum puniceum var. puniceum (purple-stem aster)

Symphyotrichum urophyllum (arrow-leaved aster)

Syringa vulgaris (common lilac)

Taraxacum officinale ssp. officinale (common dandelion)

Teucrium canadense (American germander)

Thalictrum dasycarpum (purple meadow-rue)

Thalictrum dioicum (early meadow-rue)

Thalictrum thalictroides (rue anemone)

Thelypteris palustris var. pubescens (eastern marsh fern)

Thlaspi arvense (field pennycress)

Thuja occidentalis (northern white cedar)

Tilia americana var. americana (American basswood)

Torilis japonica (Japanese hedge parsley)

Toxicodendron rydbergii (western poison ivy)

Tragopogon dubius (yellow goat’s beard)

Trifolium hybridum (alsike clover)

Trifolium pratense (red clover)

Trifolium repens ssp. repens (white clover)

Triglochin maritima (seaside arrowgrass)

Trillium cernuum (nodding trillium)

Triosteum aurantiacum var. aurantiacum (early horse gentian)

Triosteum perfoliatum (late horse gentian)

Turritis glabra (tower mustard)

Typha × glauca (hybrid cattail)

Typha angustifolia (narrow-leaved cattail)

Typha latifolia (broad-leaved cattail)

Ulmus americana (American elm)

Ulmus pumila (Siberian elm)

Ulmus rubra (slippery elm)

Ulmus thomasii (rock elm)

Urtica gracilis ssp. gracilis (American stinging nettle)

Uvularia grandiflora (large-flowered bellwort)

Uvularia sessilifolia (sessile-leaf bellwort)

Valeriana edulis var. ciliata (edible valerian)

Verbascum thapsus ssp. thapsus (common mullein)

Verbena bracteata (bracted vervain)

Verbena hastata (blue vervain)

Verbena stricta (hoary vervain)

Verbena urticifolia (white vervain)

Vernonia fasciculata ssp. fasciculata (prairie ironweed)

Veronica catenata (water speedwell)

Veronicastrum virginicum (Culver’s root)

Viburnum lentago (nannyberry)

Viburnum opulus var. americanum (American highbush cranberry)

Viburnum opulus var. opulus (European cranberrybush)

Vicia americana ssp. americana (American vetch)

Vicia villosa ssp. villosa (hairy vetch)

Viola eriocarpa (smooth yellow violet)

Viola nephrophylla (northern bog violet)

Viola pubescens (downy yellow violet)

Viola sororia (common blue violet)

Vitis riparia (wild grape)

Xanthium strumarium (rough cocklebur)

Zanthoxylum americanum (northern prickly ash)

Zizia aurea (golden alexanders)



alsike clover

American black currant

American elderberry

American germander

American plum

American red raspberry

American spikenard

annual fleabane

Bell’s honeysuckle

bird’s-foot trefoil

bittersweet nightshade

black cherry

black raspberry

black-eyed susan


bottle gentian

bouncing bet

broadleaf enchanter’s nightshade

brown-eyed Susan

bur oak (var. macrocarpa)

Canada anemone

Canada mayflower

Canadian tick-trefoil




common blue violet

common boneset

common evening primrose

common milkweed

common mullein

common self-heal (ssp. vulgaris)

common sneezeweed

common yarrow

crown vetch

Culver’s root

cup plant

cut-leaved coneflower

downy phlox

downy yellow violet

Dutchman’s breeches

eastern redcedar

eastern prickly gooseberry

eastern redcedar

eastern white pine

edible valerian

false boneset

perennial sow thistle

field thistle

four-flowered yellow loosestrife

fragrant bedstraw

fringed loosestrife

giant goldenrod

golden alexanders

gray-headed coneflower

Great Plains ladies’ tresses

ground ivy

hairy vetch

hedge bindweed

hoary puccoon

hoary vervain

interrupted fern

large yellow lady’s slipper

large-flowered bellwort

lesser fringed gentian (ssp. virgata)

marsh skullcap

meadow garlic

Michigan lily

Missouri gooseberry

Morrow’s honeysuckle

mountain death camas (var. elegans)


narrow-leaved purple coneflower

New England aster

nodding trillium

northern bedstraw

northern catalpa

northern lady fern

northern pin oak

northern prickly ash

northern small yellow lady’s slipper

oxeye daisy

pale touch-me-not


poke milkweed

prairie fleabane (var. strigosus)

prairie ironweed

prairie rose

Queen Anne’s lace

red baneberry

red clover

red elderberry

red osier dogwood

rough cinquefoil

rough cocklebur

sulphur cinquefoil

showy goldenrod

shrubby cinquefoil

small white lady’s slipper

smooth rose

smooth sumac

southern blue flag

spotted touch-me-not

spreading dogbane

swamp milkweed

swamp thistle

tall bellflower

Tatarian honeysuckle

violet wood sorrel

Virginia creeper

Virginia mountain mint

Virginia waterleaf

virgin’s bower

white clover

white snakeroot

white sweet clover

whorled milkweed

wild columbine

wild geranium

wild leek

wild mint

wild sarsaparilla

wild strawberry

wood anemone

woodland strawberry

yellow avens

yellow goat’s beard

yellow marsh marigold

yellow sweet clover




Two reptile species with conservation status in Minnesota have been seen here:


Blanding’s turtle (Emydoidea blandingii)

Special Concern

bull snake (Pituophis catenifer sayi)

  common garter snake (Thamnophis sirtalis)   common garter snake  

Worms and Leeches

  nightcrawler (Lumbricus terrestris)   nightcrawler  










Dragonfly Survey

A Status Survey for Special Concern and Endangered Dragonflies of Minnesota was conducted in 1998. Savage Fen was evaluated as potential habitat for Hine’s Emerald (Somatochlora hineana), a federally endangered dragonfly. It was determined that the site is probably too fragmented to support populations of Hine’s Emerald. Only two species were reported from Savage Fen in the survey, Halloween pennant (Celithemis eponina) and white-faced meadowhawk (Sympetrum obtrusum).



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