broadleaf enchanter’s nightshade

(Circaea canadensis ssp. canadensis)

Conservation Status
broadleaf enchanter’s nightshade
 
  IUCN Red List

not listed

     
  NatureServe

N5 - Secure

SNR - Unranked

     
  Minnesota

not listed

     
           
           
 
Description
 
 

Broadleaf enchanter’s nightshade (ssp. canadensis) is a 12 to 28 tall, erect, perennial forb that rises on a single stem from a short taproot, fibrous roots, and slender rhizomes.

The stem is erect, round, and unbranched below the inflorescence. It is sparsely covered with white, downward-pointing hairs, becoming almost hairless with age.

The leaves are opposite, oblong egg-shaped, 2 to 4¾ long, and usually less than half as wide as long. They are on leaf stalks (petioles) that are up to 2 long. The petioles are round and have a slender groove on the upper side. They are hairless or sparsely covered with forward pointing hairs. The leaf blades are rounded or shallowly heart-shaped at the base and taper to a point at the tip with concave sides along the tip. The upper and lower surfaces sparsely hairy. The margins are very shallowly toothed. The teeth have a minute, whitish tip.

The inflorescence is an unbranched, up to 8 long cluster (raceme) of many flowers at the end of the stem and shorter racemes rising singly from the axils of bracts near the base of the inflorescence. The central axis of the inflorescence (rachis) elongates early in the season, so that the flowers are widely and evenly spaced along its length. The rachis is moderately to densely covered with spreading, gland-tipped hairs.

Each flower is held at the end of a to long, widely-spreading, glandular-hairy stalk (pedicel). At the base of the flower there is a globular, green ovary. The ovary is densely covered with long, hooked hairs. There are 2 green sepals, 2 white petals, 2 white stamens with white anthers, and a long, slender, white style. The sepals are 1 16 to long, sharply bent backward, glandular-hairy on the outer surface, and hairless on the inner surface. The petals are 1 16 to long, spreading, and deeply notched at the tip, the notch less than half the length of the petal.

The fruit is a to 3 16 long, 2-celled capsule. The capsule is strongly ridged and densely covered with stiff, hooked hairs.

 
     
 

Height

 
 

12 to 28

 
     
 

Flower Color

 
 

White

 
     
 

Similar Species

 
 

Alpine enchanter’s-nightshade (Circaea alpina ssp. alpina) is a smaller plant, no more than 12 in height. The leaves are usually more than half as wide as long. The flowers are clustered at the end of the raceme. The pedicels are erect to ascending and hairless. The fruit capsule is not ridged.

 
     
 
Habitat
 
 

Moist. Woodlands.

 
     
 
Biology
 
 

Flowering

 
 

June to August

 
     
 

Pests and Diseases

 
 

 

 
     
 
Use
 
 

 

 
     
 
Distribution
 
 

Distribution Map

 

Sources

2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 24, 28, 29, 30.

 
  7/29/2022      
         
 

Nativity

 
 

Native

 
         
 

Occurrence

 
 

 

 
         
 
Taxonomy
 
  Kingdom Plantae (green algae and land plants)  
  Subkingdom Viridiplantae (green plants)  
  Infrakingdom Streptophyta (land plants and green algae)  
  Superdivision Embryophyta (land plants)  
  Division Tracheophyta (vascular plants)  
  Subdivision Spermatophytina (seed plants)  
  Class Magnoliopsida (flowering plants)  
  Superorder Rosanae  
  Order Myrtales (myrtles, evening primroses, and allies)  
 

Family

Onagraceae (evening primrose)  
  Subfamily Onagroideae  
  Tribe Circaeeae  
 

Genus

Circaea (enchanter’s nightshades)  
       
 

Subordinate Taxa

 
 

None

Until recently, this species was included in Circaea lutetiana, one circumboreal species with three subspecies. Only Circaea lutetiana ssp. canadensis occurred in North America. In 2005, based on molecular DNA and other data, the Asian subspecies retained the name Circaea lutetiana while the other two became subspecies of Circaea canadensis. The New World species became Circaea canadensis ssp. canadensis, while the Old World species became Circaea canadensis ssp. quadrisulcata. A molecular phylogenetic study published in 2009 showed that the two Circaea canadensis subspecies were not closely related, despite their morphological similarity. The New World species retained the name Circaea canadensis, while the Old World species became Circaea quadrisulcata.

To date (July 29, 2022), few sources have adopted the name Circaea canadensis for just this species. Other names currently in use include Circaea canadensis ssp. canadensis (FNA, ITIS, and POWO), Circaea lutetiana ssp. canadensis (USDA PLANTS, NatureServe, and WFO), Circaea lutetiana (GRIN), and Circaea lutetiana var. canadensis (MnTaxa).

 
       
 

Synonyms

 
 

Circaea canadensis ssp. canadensis

Circaea lutetiana

Circaea lutetiana ssp. canadensis

Circaea lutetiana ssp. canadensis

Circaea quadrisulcata var. canadensis

Circaea quadrisulcata ssp. canadensis

 
       
 

Common Names

 
 

broadleaf enchanter’s nightshade

broadleaf enchanter’s-nightshade

broad-leaf enchanter’s nightshade

broad-leaf enchanter’s-nightshade

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Glossary

Glandular hairs

Hairs spread over aerial vegetation that secrete essential oils. The oils act to protect against herbivores and pathogens or, when on a flower part, attract pollinators. The hairs have a sticky or oily feel.

 

Pedicel

On plants: the stalk of a single flower in a cluster of flowers. On insects: the second segment of the antenna. On Hymenoptera and Araneae: the narrow stalk connecting the thorax to the abdomen: the preferred term is petiole.

 

Petiole

On plants: The stalk of a leaf blade or a compound leaf that attaches it to the stem. On ants and wasps: The constricted first one or two segments of the rear part of the body.

 

Raceme

An unbranched, elongated inflorescence with stalked flowers. The flowers mature from the bottom up.

 

Rachis

The main axis of a compound leaf, appearing as an extension of the leaf stalk; the main axis of an inflorescence.

 

Rhizome

A horizontal, usually underground stem. It serves as a reproductive structure, producing roots below and shoots above at the nodes.

 
 
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Luciearl

 
 

In some way this plant is similar to American lopseed. Flower is white instead of purple, leaves not toothed…

 
    broadleaf enchanter’s nightshade   broadleaf enchanter’s nightshade  
           
 
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Plant

 
    broadleaf enchanter’s nightshade   broadleaf enchanter’s nightshade  
           
    broadleaf enchanter’s nightshade   broadleaf enchanter’s nightshade  
           
 

Inflorescence

 
    broadleaf enchanter’s nightshade      
           
 

Leaves

 
    broadleaf enchanter’s nightshade      
           
 

Infructescence

 
    broadleaf enchanter’s nightshade   broadleaf enchanter’s nightshade  

 

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Other Videos
 
  Enchanter's Nightshade (Circaea Lutetiana) - 2012-06-27
W3stlander
 
   
 
About

Published on Jun 28, 2012

Circaea lutetiana (enchanter's nightshade) is a plant in the evening primrose family, Onagraceae.

-------------------
Groot heksenkruid (Circaea lutetiana) is een vaste plant uit de teunisbloemfamilie (Onagraceae).

   

 

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  Luciearl
7/26/2022

Location: Lake Shore, MN

In some way this plant is similar to American lopseed. Flower is white instead of purple, leaves not toothed…

broadleaf enchanter’s nightshade  
           
 
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