tall bellflower

(Campanulastrum americanum)

Conservation Status
tall bellflower
 
  IUCN Red List

not listed

     
  NatureServe

N5? - Secure

SNR - Unranked

     
  Minnesota

not listed

     
           
Wetland Indicator Status
     
  Great Plains

FAC - Facultative

     
  Midwest

FAC - Facultative

     
  Northcentral & Northeast

FAC - Facultative

     
           
 
Description
 
 

Tall bellflower is a 3 to 6 tall, erect, winter-annual or biennial forb that rises from a taproot.

The stems are erect, stout, more or less hairy, unbranched or sometimes branched above the middle. When broken or cut they exude a milky sap.

The leaves are alternate, thin, lance-shaped to oblong egg-shaped, 3 to 6 long, and ½ to 2 wide. They taper at the base and are attached to the stem by a short leaf stalk or no stalk at all. They taper gradually at the tip to a point with concave sides along the tip. The margins are toothed and have a fringe of short hairs. The upper and lower surfaces are sparsely hairy.

The inflorescence is a 4 to 16 spike of many flowers at the ends of the stems. The lower bracts on the spike are leaf-like, the upper bracts are much smaller. The flowers are in clusters of 1 to 3 in the axils of the bracts.

The flowers are ¾ to 1 wide, flat, and circular, with 5 blue petals. The petals are fused at the base into a tube, then separated into 5 widely spreading lobes. They are whitish near the throat, giving an overall appearance of white central ring. The petal lobes are egg-shaped and have wavy margins. The style is blue, as dark or darker than the petals, protrudes well beyond the petals, bends downward, then curves upward. At the end of the style is a white stigma with 3 widely spreading lobes.

The fruit is a cylinder-shaped, ¼ to ½ long, hairless, 3-chambered capsule with many seeds.

 
     
 

Height

 
 

3 to 6

 
     
 

Flower Color

 
 

Blue with a white central ring

 
     
 

Similar Species

 
  The widely spreading lobes and inner pale ring of this bellflower make it easy to identify. Other bellflowers in Minnesota have bell-shaped flowers.  
     
 
Habitat
 
 

Moist. Wood borders, open woods, stream banks.

 
     
 
Ecology
 
 

Flowering

 
 

July to September

 
     
 
Use
 
 

 

 
     
 
Distribution
 
 

Distribution Map

 

Sources

2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 24, 28.

 
  12/27/2011      
         
 

Nativity

 
 

Native

 
         
 

Occurrence

 
 

Locally common

 
         
 
Taxonomy
 
  Kingdom Plantae (green algae and land plants)  
  Subkingdom Viridiplantae (green plants)  
  Infrakingdom Streptophyta (land plants and green algae)  
  Superdivision Embryophyta (land plants)  
  Division Tracheophyta (vascular plants)  
  Subdivision Spermatophytina (seed plants)  
  Class Magnoliopsida (dicots)  
  Superorder Asteranae  
 

Order

Asterales (sunflowers, bellflowers, fanflowers, and allies)  
 

Family

Campanulaceae (bellflower)  
  Subfamily Campanuloideae  
 

Genus

Campanula (bellflower)  
       
 

Subordinate Taxa

 
 

 

 
       
 

Synonyms

 
 

Campanula acuminata

Campanula americana

Campanula americana f. albiflora

Campanula americana f. tubuliflora

Campanula americana var. illinoensis

Campanula americana var. subulata

Campanula asteroides

Campanula illinoensis

Specularia americana

 
       
 

Common Names

 
 

American bellflower

tall bellflower

 
       

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Glossary

Axil

The upper angle where the leaf stalk meets the stem.

 

Bract

Modified leaf at the base of a flower stalk or flower cluster.

 

Winter-annual

A plant whose seeds germinate in late summer or fall and that flowers and fruits in the spring or summer of the following year, and then dies.

       
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Kirk Nelson
       
  tall bellflower   tall bellflower
       
MinnesotaSeasons.com Photos
   

Plant

  tall bellflower   tall bellflower
       

Inflorescence

  tall bellflower   tall bellflower
       

Flowers

  tall bellflower   tall bellflower
       

Flower

  tall bellflower   tall bellflower
       

Infructescence

  tall bellflower    
       

Fruit

  tall bellflower    
       
       

 

Camera

     
Slideshows
   
  Campanulastrum americanum (Tall Bellflower)
Allen Chartier
 
  Campanulastrum americanum (Tall Bellflower)  

 

slideshow

       
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Other Videos
 
  Tall Bellflower
A Celebration of Life
 
   
 
About

Uploaded on Jul 24, 2009

Blue star shaped blooms. pollinater plant

   
       

 

Camcorder

         
Visitor Sightings
   

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Kirk Nelson
8/19/2017

Location: Fort Snelling State Park

tall bellflower


     
     
 
MinnesotaSeasons.com Sightings
         

 

 

Binoculars


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