grass-leaved goldenrod

(Euthamia graminifolia)

Conservation Status
grass-leaved goldenrod
 
  IUCN Red List

not listed

     
  NatureServe

NNR - Unranked

SNR - Unranked

     
  Minnesota

not listed

     
           
Wetland Indicator Status
     
  Great Plains

FACW - Facultative wetland

     
  Midwest

FACW - Facultative wetland

     
  Northcentral & Northeast

FAC - Facultative

     
           
 
Description
 
 

Grass-leaved goldenrod is a 12 to 48tall, erect, perennial forb that rises from a horizontal underground stem (rhizome). The roots and leaves exude toxic chemicals that inhibit the growth and survival of competing species (allelopathy).

The stems are erect, leafy, and often branched in the upper quarter. They are either hairless or densely covered with short, spreading, stiff hairs. They are not glaucous.

The linear, grass-like leaves are alternate and very long and narrow, 1½ to 5 long by ¼ wide, 7 to 20 times as long as wide, becoming smaller as they ascend the stem. They are not folded. The larger leaves have three conspicuous veins, often with two fainter lateral veins. The smaller leaves usually have only a single conspicuous vein. They do not wrap around (sheath) the stem at the base. There are tiny brown to black resin dots on the leaf surface.

The inflorescence is arranged in small, dense clusters at the end of the stem and side branches. The clusters are about 1¼ clusters wide and have of 20 to 35 mostly stalkless flower heads. Together they form a broad inflorescence up to 11 wide that is usually flat topped but may appear rounded.

The flower head is smaller than most other goldenrods, only about across. It has 7 to 35 but usually 17 to 22 yellow ray florets and 3 to 13 but usually 5 to 7 yellow disk florets.

 
     
 

Height

 
 

12 to 48

 
     
 

Flower Color

 
 

Yellow ray florets, yellow disk florets

 
     
 

Similar Species

 
 

Riddell’s goldenrod (Solidago riddellii) has grass-like, folded leaves that sheath the stem at the base.

Great Plains flat-topped goldenrod (Euthamia gymnospermoides) leaves, even the largest leaves, have only a single central vein, and have a large number of resinous dots on the surface. The flower clusters have 10 to 21 flower heads. There are 10 to 14 ray florets in the flower head.

 
     
 
Habitat
 
 

Moist to dry. Meadows, prairies, roadsides, shores. Sandy soil.

 
     
 
Biology
 
 

Flowering

 
 

July to October

 
     
 

Allelopathy

 
 

A study in 2002 showed that grass-leaved goldenrod inhibits the growth and survival of competing species by exuding toxic chemicals from its roots and leaves.

 
     
 
Use
 
 

 

 
     
 
Distribution
 
 

Distribution Map

 

Sources

2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 28.

 
  12/31/2011      
         
 

Nativity

 
 

Native

 
         
 

Occurrence

 
 

Common

 
         
 
Taxonomy
 
  Kingdom Plantae (green algae and land plants)  
  Subkingdom Viridiplantae (green plants)  
  Infrakingdom Streptophyta (land plants and green algae)  
  Superdivision Embryophyta (land plants)  
  Division Tracheophyta (vascular plants)  
  Subdivision Spermatophytina (seed plants)  
  Class Magnoliopsida (flowering plants)  
  Superorder Asteranae  
 

Order

Asterales (sunflowers, bellflowers, fanflowers, and allies)  
 

Family

Asteraceae (sunflowers, daisies, asters, and allies)  
  Subfamily Asteroideae  
  Supertribe Asterodae  
  Tribe Astereae (asters and allies)  
  Genus Euthamia (grass-leaved goldenrod)  
       
 

The six species in the genus Euthamia were formerly placed in the genus Solidago. They were separated based on the arrangement of the flowers, glands on the leaves, and DNA.

 
       
 

Subordinate Taxa

 
 

Two varieties have been described, one more hairy and robust, one differing in the length to width ratio of the leaves. These characteristics overlap considerably and there is not much ecological or geographical separation. For these reasons, most taxonomists do not recognize any varieties of Euthamia graminifolia.

 
       
 

Synonyms

 
 

Euthamia graminifolia var. major

Euthamia graminifolia var.graminifolia

Euthamia graminifolia var.hirtella

Solidago graminifolia

Solidago graminifolia var. major

 
       
 

Common Names

 
 

common flat-topped goldenrod

flat-top goldentop

grass-leaved goldenrod

lance-leaved goldenrod

 
       

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Glossary

Allelopathy

The release of a chemical toxin by one plant to inhibit the growth or germination of nearby competing plants.

 

Glaucous

Pale green or bluish gray due to a whitish, powdery or waxy film, as on a plum or a grape.

 

Linear

Long, straight, and narrow, with more or less parallel sides, like a blade of grass.

 

Rhizome

A horizontal, usually underground stem. It serves as a reproductive structure, producing roots below and shoots above at the nodes.

 

Sheath

The lower part of the leaf that surrounds the stem.

       
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Plant

  grass-leaved goldenrod   grass-leaved goldenrod
       
  grass-leaved goldenrod    
       

Inflorescence

  grass-leaved goldenrod   grass-leaved goldenrod
       
  grass-leaved goldenrod    
       

Flower Heads

  grass-leaved goldenrod    
       

Leaves

  grass-leaved goldenrod    
       
       

 

Camera

     
Slideshows
   
  Flat-top Goldenrod (Euthamia graminifolia)
Andree Reno Sanborn
 
  Flat-top Goldenrod (Euthamia graminifolia)  
     
  Solidago graminifolia COMMON GRASS-LEAVED GOLDENROD
Frank Mayfield
 
  Solidago graminifolia COMMON GRASS-LEAVED GOLDENROD  

 

slideshow

       
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