marsh hedge nettle

(Stachys palustris)

Conservation Status
marsh hedge nettle
  IUCN Red List

not listed

     
  NatureServe

N5? - Secure

SNR - Unranked

     
  Minnesota

not listed

     
           
Wetland Indicator Status
     
  Midwest

OBL - Obligate wetland

     
  Northcentral & Northeast

OBL - Obligate wetland

     
           
 
Description
 
 

Marsh hedge nettle is a 12 to 40 tall, erect, perennial forb that rises from a rhizome. It often forms colonies.

The stems are erect, square, hollow, and usually unbranched. They have copious hairs both on the ridges of the stem and between the ridges. The hairs are bent downward. The hairs on the ridges are distinctly longer but not much stouter than those between the ridges.

The leaves are opposite, lance egg-shaped or broadly oblong to egg-shaped, 1 to 3½ long, and mostly ¾ to 1½ wide. They are mostly stalkless but some may be on short leaf stalks. The leaf blades taper to a point at the tip and are broadly rounded or almost heart-shaped at the base. The upper surface is green and hairy. The lower surface is paler green and has hairs along the major veins. The margins have rounded, forward-pointing teeth.

The inflorescence is a cluster of usually 6 flowers. Lower clusters rise from the upper leaf axils. Middle and upper clusters are opposite and are subtended by a small, leaf-like bract. Each pair of opposite flower clusters together form a false whorl. The bracts become gradually smaller as they ascend the stem.

The flowers are 7 16 to long. They have 5 green or purplish, hairy sepals that are fused at the base into a calyx tube ¼ to long and separated at the end into 5 lance-shaped lobes. The calyx lobes are nearly as long as the calyx tube and are hairy. There are 5 petals that are fused at the base into a corolla tube about ¼ long. The petals are pink or lavender with white spots. The calyx tube is always at least as long as the corolla tube. The corolla is divided at the end into 2 lips. The upper lip is about 3 16 long and wide, hood-like, hairy outside, hairless inside. The lower lip is divided at the tip into 3 lobes, a large central lobe and 2 smaller lateral lobes. There are 4 stamens protected beneath the hood.

The fruit is 4 greenish-white, 3-ribbed, 1-seeded nutlets. They turn black when they ripen.

 
     
 

Height

 
 

12 to 40

 
     
 

Flower Color

 
 

Pink or lavender with white spots

 
     
 

Similar Species

 
 

American germander (Teucrium canadense) flowers have a greatly reduced upper lip.

Hairy hedge nettle (Stachys hispida) stems have hairs on the ridges but no hairs between the ridges.

Smooth hedge nettle (Stachys tenuifolia) stems have hairs on the ridges but no hairs between the ridges. The leaves may have hairs along the midribs but are otherwise hairless.

Woundwort (Stachys pilosa var. arenicola) stems have hairs on the ridges and between the ridges that are about alike. The leaves are narrower, rarely wider than ¾.

 
     
 
Habitat
 
 

Moist to wet

 
     
 
Biology
 
 

Flowering

 
 

July to August

 
     
 
Use
 
 

 

 
     
 
Distribution
 
 

Distribution Map

 

Sources

2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 28.

 
  1/16/2012      
         
 

Nativity

 
 

Native

 
         
 

Occurrence

 
 

Common

 
         
 
Taxonomy
 
  Kingdom Plantae (green algae and land plants)  
  Subkingdom Viridiplantae (green plants)  
  Infrakingdom Streptophyta (land plants and green algae)  
  Superdivision Embryophyta (land plants)  
  Division Tracheophyta (vascular plants)  
  Subdivision Spermatophytina (seed plants)  
  Class Magnoliopsida (dicots)  
  Superorder Asteranae  
 

Order

Lamiales (mints, plantains, olives, and allies)  
 

Family

Lamiaceae (mint)  
  Subfamily Lamioideae  
  Tribe Stachydeae  
  Genus Stachys (hedge nettle)  
       
 

There is some disagreement about the number and classification of Minnesota’s Stachys species. The classification used on MinnesotaSeasons.com follows ITIS and USDA PLANTS.

 
       
 

Synonyms

 
 

Stachys asperrima

Stachys borealis

Stachys homotricha

Stachys palustris var. homotricha

Stachys palustris var. nipigonensis

Stachys palustris var. phaneropoda

Stachys palustris var. pilosa

Stachys palustris ssp. pilosa

Stachys palustris var. puberula

Stachys scopulorum

Stachys teucriifolia

Stachys teucriiformis

 
       
 

Common Names

 
 

hairy hedgenettle

hairy hedge-nettle

marsh hedge nettle

woundwort

 
       

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Glossary

Bract

Modified leaf at the base of a flower stalk, flower cluster, or inflorescence.

 

Calyx

The group of outer floral leaves (sepals) below the petals, occasionally forming a tube.

 

Corolla

A collective name for all of the petals of a flower.

 

Linear

Long, straight, and narrow, with more or less parallel sides, like a blade of grass.

 

Rhizome

A horizontal, usually underground stem. It serves as a reproductive structure, producing roots below and shoots above at the nodes.

 

Sepal

An outer floral leaf, usually green but sometimes colored, at the base of a flower.

       
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MinnesotaSeasons.com Photos
   

Plant

  marsh hedge nettle   marsh hedge nettle
       

Leaves

  marsh hedge nettle    
       

Infructescence

  marsh hedge nettle    
       
       

 

Camera

     
Slideshows
   
  Marsh Woundwort
Wez Smith
 
  Marsh Woundwort  
 
About

Marsh Woundwort (Stachys palustris).

 
     

 

slideshow

       
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Other Videos
 
  Moerasandoorn Stachys palustris 5 juli 2010.wmv
Wim Derks
 
   
 
About

Uploaded on Jul 5, 2010

Van dichtbij een bloem waarvan het bijna exotische doet denken aan orchideeën. Langs onze sloten en op andere vochtige gronden is zij heel algemeen.

   
       

 

Camcorder


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