Norman’s quaker

(Crocigrapha normani)

Norman’s quaker
Photo by Alfredo Colon
  Hodges #

10501

 
 
Conservation Status
  IUCN Red List

not listed

     
  NatureServe

NNR - Unranked

     
  Minnesota

not listed

     
           
 
Description
 
 

Norman’s quaker is an early season, medium-sized owlet moth. It occurs in North America from Quebec to Alberta south to Georgia and Colorado. It is most common in New England and in the Midwest. It is common in Minnesota. Adults are found from April to June. Mature larvae (caterpillars) are found from late April to July on the leaves of many species of deciduous trees, including apple, ash, aspen, birch, cherry, elm, ironwood, maple, oak, plum, and willow; and shrubs including blueberry, hazel, rose, and witch hazel.

Adults are 11 16 to ¾ (18 to 19 mm) long and have a wingspan of 15 16 to 19 16 (33 to 40 mm). The forewings are long. The rear (outer) margin is strongly angled inward from at or near the leading (costal) margin to the inner margin. The ground color is variable, usually dark brown but sometimes reddish-brown, orangish-brown, yellowish-brown, or brownish-gray. There is a large whitish patch at the outer angle, where the costal margin meets the outer margin. The antemedial (AM) line is smooth, slightly curved, and pale in the center with thin dark border above and a broader dark border below. The postmedial (PM) line is strongly curved downward in the middle and upward approaching the inner and costal margins. It is pale in the center with broad dark border above and a thin dark border below. The median area, between the AM and PM lines, is often darker than the ground color. On light individuals, there is no subterminal (ST) line. On dark individuals the ST line is defined by the paler terminal area and the darker subterminal area. The terminal line consists of a line of black dots, one at the end of each cell. There is a circular spot in the median area (orbicular spot) and a kidney-shaped spot at the end of the discal cell (reniform spot). Both spots are bordered with white and are the same color as the ground in the center. The reniform spot has a conspicuous black spot in the inner half.

The hindwings are whitish at the base, gradually darkening approaching the outer margin.

The head and thorax are the same color as the forewings. On the upper side of the thorax there is a tuft of hairs that is inconspicuously divided into a small tuft in front and a large one in the rear. The antennae are threadlike on both the male and the female.

The caterpillar is called climbing cherry cutworm. Late stage (instar) caterpillars are about 1 long and reddish-brown to tannish-brown. They have no stripes and few other distinguishing features. The breathing pores (spiracles) are brown rimmed with black. Sometimes there is a barely distinguishable pale stripe through the spiracular area. The plate on the upper side of the first segment of the thorax (prothoracic shield) is dark brown and shiny above, pale on the sides, and has a pale spot in the middle at the rear. The eighth abdominal segment is somewhat humped and has a pale horizontal line at the rear. The head is brown and shiny, with two dark spots on each side that merge together. Middle and second-to-last (penultimate) instar caterpillars are sharply bi-colored, dark olive green above and creamy white below. The subspiracular area is the darkest. There is a thin longitudinal stripe in the middle (middorsal) and a thin white stripe on each side in the subdorsal area. The head has two dark spots on each side that do not merge together.

 
     
 

Size

 
 

Total Length: 11 16 to ¾ (18 to 19 mm)

Wingspan: 15 16 to 19 16 (33 to 40 mm)

 
     
 

Similar Species

 
     
     
 
Habitat
 
 

Forests, woodlands, and large gardens

 
     
 
Biology
 
 

Season

 
 

One generation per year: April to June

 
     
 

Behavior

 
 

Adults are active at night and will come to lights.

 
     
 

Life Cycle

 
 

Females lay large, tight clusters (rafts) of eggs on the leaves of host plants. The pupa overwinters.

 
     
 

Larva Hosts

 
 

Leaves of deciduous trees, including apple, ash, aspen, birch, cherry, elm, ironwood, maple, oak, plum, and willow; and shrubs including blueberry, hazel, rose, and witch hazel.

 
     
 

Adult Food

 
 

 

 
     
 
Distribution
 
 

Distribution Map

 

Sources

21, 24, 29, 30, 71, 75.

 
  12/13/2019      
         
 

Occurrence

 
 

Common

 
         
 
Taxonomy
 
 

Order

Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths)  
 

Suborder

Glossata  
 

Infraorder

Neolepidoptera  
  Parvorder Heteroneura  
  No Rank Ditrysia  
  No Rank Obtectomera  
 

Superfamily

Noctuoidea (noctuid moths)  
 

Family

Noctuidae (owlet moths)  
 

Subfamily

Noctuinae (cutworms or dart moths)  
 

Tribe

Orthosiini  
 

Genus

Crocigrapha  
       
 

Synonyms

 
 

Perigrapha normani

 
       
 

Common Names

 
 

climbing cherry cutworm (caterpillar)

Norman’s quaker

 
       

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Glossary

Antemedial (AM) line

A thin line separating the basal area and the median area of the forewing of Lepidoptera.

 

Costal margin

The leading edge of the forewing of insects.

 

Instar

The developmental stage of arthropods between each molt; in insects, the developmental stage of the larvae or nymph.

 

Orbicular spot

A circular spot or outline in the outer median area near the antemedial line on the forewing of many moths.

 

Postmedial (PM) line

A thin line separating the median area and the postmedial area of the forewing of Lepidoptera.

 

Reniform spot

A kidney-shaped spot or outline in the outer median area near the postmedial line on the forewing of many moths.

 

Spiracle

A small opening on the surface of an insect through which the insect breathes.

 

 

 

 

 

 
 
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Alfredo Colon

 
    Norman’s quaker   Norman’s quaker  
           
 
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Noctuidae - Crocigrapha normani
Caterpillars of the Allegheny National Forest
  Noctuidae - Crocigrapha normani  
 
About

Norman's Quaker

 
     

 

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  Alfredo Colon
Summer 2018

Location: Woodbury, Minnesota

Norman’s quaker  
           
 
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Created: 12/13/2019

Last Updated:

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