Minnesota Ants, Bees, Wasps and Sawflies

Order Hymenoptera

Hymenoptera (ants, bees, wasps and sawflies) is the order of insects that is characterized by having two pairs of membranous wings and an ovipositor specialized for stinging or piercing. The order includes ants, bees, wasps, hornets, sawflies, and horntails.

There are about 125,000 known species worldwide, about 18,000 species in more than 2,000 genera in North America north of Mexico. More than 1,000 species have been collected at Cedar Creek Ecosystem Science Reserve in Anoka County, Minnesota.


black and yellow mud dauber



Recent Additions

Taschenberg’s long-necked ant


Taschenberg’s long-necked ant (Dolichoderus taschenbergi) is a small odorous ant. It occurs in the United States from Maine to North Dakota, south to Georgia and Louisiana, and in Canada from Nova Scotia to Manitoba. It is uncommon throughout its range but is most abundant in the north. It is found in open areas including old fields, woodland edges, and bogs. It forms huge colonies, often with multiple queens and more than 10,000 workers. It constructs igloo-shaped dome nests, 2 to 8 in height, using grasses, sphagnum mosses, spruce and pine needles, and other shredded vegetation. It the spring it can sometimes be found massed above ground warming in the sun.

Workers are uniformly colored. The overall color is sometimes interpreted as “dark brownish-black”, sometimes as “all black”, sometimes as “jet black”. The head and front part of the body are dull, the rear of the body is shiny. The last segment of the front part of the body (propodeum) is an important identifying feature. When viewed from above, the propodeum is squarish, about as long as wide. When viewed from the side, the propodeum is distinctly concave and has the appearance of a bottle opener.

  Taschenberg’s long-necked ant  
    Photo by Luciearl  

Elm leafminer


Elm leafminer (Fenusa ulmi) is a very small common sawfly. It is native to eastern Europe and Scandinavia. It was brought to North America most likely on imported elms. It now occurs in the United States from New England to the upper Midwest, in the Pacific Northwest, and in southeast Canada. Based on the scarcity of reports, it is still relatively uncommon in Minnesota. Adults are small and dark colored.

Due to the small size of the adult, elm leafminer is most often identified by the damage the larva causes to its host plant. Mines are seen from mid-May to early June on American elm and slippery elm. The larva feeds between the upper and lower surfaces of the leaf. It creates a serpentine mine at first. That soon develops into a small blotch between two lateral veins, later into a large blotch on one side if the midrib. The mines are clear and the flattened, whitish-green or yellowish-white larva can be seen when viewing the upper side of the leaf. The infected part of the leaf turns brown and eventually falls off. A heavy infestation may cause the entire tree to defoliate, but the infected tree flushes again and survives.

  elm leafminer  

Black-and-gold bumble bee


Black-and-gold bumble bee (Bombus auricomus) is common, large, colonial bumble bee. It occurs in North America east of the Rocky mountains. It is common in southern Minnesota, less common in the north. It is one of the largest bumble bees in Minnesota. Females (worker bees) are up to ¾ long. It is found in grasslands and open areas. It lives in small colonies of about 35 workers.

Black-and-gold bumble bee is identified by its large size; there is a patch of yellow hairs on the back of the head; the thorax that is yellow on the front third, black on the rear two thirds, and has a very narrow yellow band at the rear; and the abdomen is black except for the entirely yellow second and third segments.

  black-and-gold bumble bee  
    Photo by Gerry Garcia  

Nomad bee (Nomada spp.)


There are more than 850 species of nomad bee (Nomada sp.) worldwide, more than 280 species in North America. Like other cuckoo bees (subfamily Nomadinae), nomad bees do not construct nests, but lay their eggs in the nests of ground-nesting bees. One to four eggs are laid in the cell wall of the host nest. The larvae have large, outward-facing, scissor-like mandibles. The first larva to emerge destroys all the other eggs, both those of the host and those of its own siblings. It consumes the pollen provisioned by its host, and emerges as an adult the same time as the host adults emerge.

Nomad bees are usually black, black and red, or entirely red, with yellow, white, and/or red markings. Many species have red legs. The genus Nomada includes the only bees in North America that are entirely red. They have short, thin, and inconspicuous hairs on the body and no pollen-collecting hairs (scopa) on the hind legs. They look more like wasps than a bees.

  nomad bee (Nomada sp.)  
    Photo by Alfredo Colon  

Downy yellowjacket


Downy yellowjacket (Vespula flavopilosa) is an uncommon, medium-sized, predatory, social wasp. It is found in the northeastern United States from Minnesota to Maine, south to Virginia, and along the Appalachian mountains to northern Georgia. It closely resembles eastern yellowjacket. It is thought by some to be a hybrid between eastern and common yellowjackets. Others suggest that it probably arose as a hybrid but now queens mate with drones of the same species.

The overwintering queen emerges from hibernation in April or May. She builds a nest of 20 to 45 cells and cares for the grubs as they hatch. In about 30 days the workers emerge and take over nest building duties. Through spring and summer the queen produces a large number of worker wasps. In mid-summer, the nest grows exponentially, as more and more workers become available, ultimately with 3,500 to 15,000 cells. Only the new queens survive the winter, hibernating under loose tree bark, in a decaying stump, or in another sheltered location.

In eastern North America, four yellowjacket species, common, downy, eastern, and German yellowjackets, closely resemble each other, making identification difficult. Downy yellowjacket is distinguished from the others by a continuous, uninterrupted yellow band on the face below the compound eye; and by the shape and pattern of black markings on the first and second abdominal segments.

  downy yellowjacket  
    Photo by Bill Reynolds  
Other Recent Additions

oak fig gall wasp (Trigonaspis quercusforticorne)

two-spotted longhorned bee (Melissodes bimaculatus bimaculatus)

thread-waisted wasp (Ammophila pictipennis)

cellophane bees (Colletes spp.)

mason wasp (Zethus spinipes spinipes)

yellow-banded bumble bee (Bombus terricola)

  mason wasp (Zethus spinipes spinipes)  
    Photo by Mike Poeppe  









This list includes only ants, bees, wasps and sawflies that have been recorded in Minnesota, but not all of the ants, bees, wasps and sawflies found in Minnesota.

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aberrant cellophane bee (Colletes aberrans)

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acorn plum gall wasp (Amphibolips quercusjuglans)


agile long-horned bee (Melissodes agilis)

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alfalfa leafcutting bee (Megachile rotundata)

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Allegheny mound ant (Formica exsectoides)


alternate cuckoo-leaf-cutter bee (Coelioxys alternatus)


American ant (Myrmica americana)


American bumble bee (Bombus pensylvanicus)


American cellophane bee (Colletes americanus)

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American pelecinid wasp (Pelecinus polyturator)

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American sand wasp (Bembix americana)


Andrew’s cellophane bee (Colletes andrewsi)

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ants (Family Formicidae)


articulated nomad bee (Nomada articulata)


aster cellophane bee (Colletes compactus)

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bald-faced hornet (Dolichovespula maculata)


bald-spot sweat bee (Lasioglossum paraforbesii)


Bank’s nomad bee (Nomada banksi)


beach dune cellophane bee (Colletes speculiferus)


beloved vespid wasp (Odynerus dilectus)


bellflower resin bee (Megachile campanulae)

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bicolored striped sweat bee (Agapostemon virescens)


bi-lobed cuckoo sweat bee (Sphecodes confertus)

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black-and-gold bumble bee (Bombus auricomus)


black-and-gray leaf-cutter bee (Megachile melanophaea)


black and red horntail (Urocerus cressoni)


black-and-white digger wasp (Euodynerus leucomelas)

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black and yellow mud dauber (Sceliphron caementarium)


black-and-yellow nomad (Nomada luteoloides)


black-headed ash sawfly (Tethida cordigera)


blood-red ant (Formica sanguinea)


blueberry cellophane bee (Colletes validus)


blue orchard bee (Osmia lignaria lignaria)


blue-winged wasp (Scolia dubia)


braconid wasp (Atanycolus charus)


braconid wasp (Atanycolus crassicruris)


braconid wasp (Atanycolus longicauda)


braconid wasp (Atanycolus nigropyga)


braconid wasp (Atanycolus niteofrons)


braconid wasp (Atanycolus rugosiventris)


braconid wasp (Atanycolus simplex)


braconid wasp (Atanycolus spp.)


braconid wasp (Atanycolus ulmicola)

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braconid wasp (Family Braconidae)


braconid wasp (Meteorus spp.)


broad-footed cellophane bee (Colletes latitarsis)

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broad-handed leafcutting bee (Megachile latimanus)

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brown-belted bumble bee (Bombus griseocollis)


brown-headed ash sawfly (Tomostethus multicinctus)


brown-winged striped sweat bee (Agapostemon splendens)

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bumble bee (Bombus spp.)


buttercup cuckoo sweat bee (Sphecodes ranunculi)

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butternut woollyworm (Eriocampa juglandis)

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California jumping gall wasp (Neuroterus saltatorius)


Canadian potter wasp (Symmorphus canadensis)


Catskill potter wasp (Ancistrocerus catskill)

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cellophane bees (Colletes spp.)


cellophane bee (Colletes eulophi)


chalcid wasp (Melittobia spp.)


cherry gall wasp (Cynips quercusfolii)


cinquefoil yellow-faced bee (Hylaeus basalis)


cloudy-winged miner bee (Andrena nubecula)

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common aerial yellowjacket (Dolichovespula arenaria)

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common eastern bumble bee (Bombus impatiens)


common little leaf-cutter bee (Megachile brevis)

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common sawfly (Family Tenthredinidae)

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common sawfly (Macrophya epinota)


common sawfly (Macrophya flavolineata)


common sawfly (Macrophya fumator)

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common sawfly (Macrophya pulchella)


common sawfly (Macrophya spp.)


common sawfly (Macrophya tibiator)

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common sawfly (Macrophya trisyllaba)


common sawfly (Monophadnoides spp.)


common thread-waisted wasp (Ammophila procera)


common yellowjacket (Vespula alascensis)


confusing bumble bee (Bombus perplexus)


confusing furrow bee (Halictus confusus)


confusing long-horned bee (Melissodes confusa)


constrained cuckoo carder bee (Stelis coarctatus)


cornfield ant (Lasius alienus)


crabonid wasp (Astata unicolor)


Cresson’s nomad bee (Nomada cressonii)


Cresson’s sweat bee (Lasioglossum cressonii)


cross potter wasp (Eumenes crucifera-nearcticus)

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cuckoo bee (Triepeolus spp.)


cuckoo wasp (Chrysura smaragdula)


cuckoo wasp (Elampus spp.)


cuckoo wasp (Family Chrysididae)


cuckoo wasp (Hedychrum confusum)


cuckoo wasp (Muesbeckidium obsoletum)


cuckoo wasp (Subfamily Chrysidinae)


cuckoo wasp (Trichrysis doriae)


cuneate nomad bee (Nomada cuneata)

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curled rose sawfly (Allantus cinctus)


cyclops cuckoo sweat bee (Sphecodes heraclei)


Davis’s cuckoo sweat bee (Sphecodes davisii)


denticulate cuckoo nomad bee (Nomada denticulata)


denticulate long-horned bee (Melissodes denticulatus)


depressed cuckoo nomad bee (Nomada depressa)

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dogwood sawfly (Macremphytus tarsatus)

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dogwood sawfly (Macremphytus testaceus)

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downy yellowjacket (Vespula flavopilosa)


Drury’s long-horned bee (Melissodes druriellus)


dull-breasted sweat bee (Lasioglossum pectorale)


dusky birch sawfly (Croesus latitarsus)


eastern black carpenter ant (Camponotus pennsylvanicus)


eastern yellow-faced bee (Hylaeus affinis)

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eastern yellowjacket (Vespula maculifrons)

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eight-toothed cuckoo leaf-cutter bee (Coelioxys octodentata)

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elm leafminer (Fenusa ulmi)

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elm sawfly (Cimbex americana)


eucera cuckoo nomad bee (Triepeolus cressonii)


European paper wasp (Polistes dominula)


European pine sawfly (Neodiprion sertifer)


Fernald's cuckoo bumble bee (Bombus fernaldae)


flat-tailed leaf-cutter bee (Megachile mendica)


forest yellowjacket (Vespula acadica)

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four-banded stink bug hunter wasp (Bicyrtes quadrifasciatus)

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fraternal potter wasp (Eumenes fraternus)


frigid bumble bee (Bombus frigidus)


frigid leaf-cutter bee (Megachile frigida)


fuzzy mound ant (Formica lasioides)

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German yellowjacket (Vespula germanica)


giant ichneumon (Megarhyssa atrata)


giant ichneumon (Megarhyssa macrurus)


golden northern bumble bee (Bombus fervidus)


golden sweat bee (Augochlorella aurata)


goldenrod cellophane bee (Colletes solidaginis)


goldenrod longhorn-cuckoo bee (Triepeolus pectoralis)


goldenrod long-horned bee (Melissodes menuachus)


gouty oak gall wasp (Callirhytis quercus punctata)


Graenicher’s cuckoo nomad bee (Nomada graenicheri)

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great black digger wasp (Sphex pensylvanicus)

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great golden digger wasp (Sphex ichneumoneus)


green metallic sweat bee (Augochloropsis metallica)


ground hornet (Vespula vidua)

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hairy-banded mining bee (Andrena hirticincta)

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half-black bumble bee (Bombus vagans)


hawthorn leafminer (Profenusa canadensis)


high noon ant (Forelius pruinosus)


homogeneous cuckoo sweat bee (Sphecodes persimilis)


Hunt’s bumble bee (Bombus huntii)


hyaline cellophane bee (Colletes hyalinus)


ichneumon wasp (Aritranis director)

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ichneumon wasp (Charops annulipes)


ichneumon wasp (Colpotrochia trifasciata)


ichneumon wasp (Cosmoconus canadensis)


ichneumon wasp (Cosmoconus spp.)


ichneumon wasp (Cratichneumon annulatipes)


ichneumon wasp (Cratichneumon paratus)


ichneumon wasp (Cratichneumon pteridis)

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ichneumon wasp (Cratichneumon spp.)


ichneumon wasp (Cratichneumon sublatus)


ichneumon wasp (Cratichneumon tyloidifer)


ichneumon wasp (Cratichneumon unifasciatorius)


ichneumon wasp (Cratichneumon vescus)


ichneumon wasp (Cratichneumon vinnulus)


ichneumon wasp (Cratichneumon w-album)

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ichneumon wasp (Family Ichneumonidae)


ichneumon wasp (Lissonota acrobasidis)


ichneumon wasp (Lissonota atrimalis)


ichneumon wasp (Lissonota brevipappus)


ichneumon wasp (Lissonota brunnea)


ichneumon wasp (Lissonota conferta)


ichneumon wasp (Lissonota coracina)


ichneumon wasp (Lissonota crevieri)


ichneumon wasp (Lissonota cruralis)


ichneumon wasp (Lissonota cylpeator)


ichneumon wasp (Lissonota exigua)


ichneumon wasp (Lissonota exilis)


ichneumon wasp (Lissonota imitatrix)


ichneumon wasp (Lissonota parva)


ichneumon wasp (Lissonota punctata)


ichneumon wasp (Lissonota rubrica)


ichneumon wasp (Lissonota scutellaris)

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ichneumon wasp (Lissonota spp.)


ichneumon wasp (Lissonota stenostoma)


ichneumon wasp (Lissonota tegularis)


ichneumon wasp (Melanichneumon spp.)


ichneumon wasp (Ophionellus spp.)


ichneumon wasp (Ophionellus texanus)


ichneumon wasp (Therion circumflexum)


ichneumon wasp (Therion fuscipenne)


ichneumon wasp (Therion morio)


ichneumon wasp (Therion nigripes)


ichneumon wasp (Therion petiolatum)


ichneumon wasp (Therion spp.)


ichneumon wasp (Therion tenuipes)


ichneumon wasp (Therion texanum)

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ichneumon wasp (Vulgichneumon brevicinctor)


Illinois cuckoo nomad bee (Nomada illinoensis)


imbricate cuckoo nomad bee (Nomada imbricata)


impunctate cellophane bee (Colletes impunctatus)


indiscriminate cuckoo bumble bee (Bombus insularis)


introduced pine sawfly (Diprion similis)


Kincaid’s cellophane bee (Colletes kincaidii)


kindred cellophane bee (Colletes consors)


larch sawfly (Pristiphora erichsonii)

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larger empty oak apple wasp (Amphibolips quercusinanis)

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leaf-cutter bee (Megachile spp.)


leathery sweat bee (Lasioglossum coriaceum)

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lemon cuckoo bumble bee (Bombus citrinus)


ligated furrow bee (Halictus ligatus)


light bronze mound ant (Formica subaenescens)


little black ant (Monomorium minimum)


long-horned bee (Melissodes grindelliae)

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long-horned bee (Melissodes spp.)


long-horned bee (Melissodes wheeleri)


lunate longhorn-cuckoo (Triepeolus lunatus)


mandibular cellophane bee (Colletes mandibularis)


maple petiole borer (Caulocampus acericaulis)


Mary’s long-necked ant (Dolichoderus mariae)


masked bee (Hylaeus spp.)

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mason wasp (Zethus spinipes spinipes)


Mesilla yellow-faced bee (Hylaeus mesillae)

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metallic bluish-green cuckoo wasp (Chrysis angolensis)

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Mexican grass-carrying wasp (Isodontia mexicana)

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mining bee (Andrena spp.)


modest yellow-faced bee (Hylaeus modestus)


mossy rose gall wasp (Diplolepis rosae)


mottled long-necked ant (Dolichoderus plagiatus)


mountain ash sawfly (Pristiphora geniculata)


neighborly nomad (Nomada vicina)


Nevada bumble bee (Bombus nevadensis)


New World mound ant (Formica neogagates)

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New York carpenter ant (Camponotus novaeboracensis)


nimble long-horned bee (Melissodes subagilis)

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nomad bee (Nomada spp.)

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northern amber bumble bee (Bombus borealis)

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northern paper wasp (Polistes fuscatus)


northern red wood ant (Formica obscuriventris)

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oak fig gall wasp (Trigonaspis quercusforticorne)

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oak flake gall wasp (Neuroterus floccosus)

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oak gall wasp (Amphibolips cookii)


oak gall wasp (Neuroterus exiguissimus)

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oak rough bulletgall wasp (Disholcaspis quercusmamma)


obliterated nomad (Nomada obliterata)


odorous house ant (Tapinoma sessile)


orange-bellied mummy wasp (Aleiodes abdominalis)


orange-legged furrow bee (Halictus rubicundus)


orange-tipped wood-digger bee (Anthophora terminalis)


ovate cuckoo nomad bee (Nomada ovata)


pale mound ant (Formica pallidefulva)


pale-marked long-horned bee (Melissodes pallidisignatus)


parallel-striped sweat bee (Halictus parallelus)


pear sawfly (Caliroa cerasi)

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pigeon tremex (Tremex columba)


pitted mound ant (Formica fossaceps)

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podzol mound ant (Formica podzolica)

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potter and mason wasps (Subfamily Eumeninae)


potter wasp (Ancistrocerus adiabatus)


potter wasp (Ancistrocerus antilope)


potter wasp (Ancistrocerus campestris)


potter wasp (Ancistrocerus spinolae)


potter wasp (Ancistrocerus unifasciatus)


potter wasp (Eumenes bollii)


potter wasp (Euodynerus annulatus)


potter wasp (Euodynerus boscii-molestus)


potter wasp (Euodynerus crypticus)


potter wasp (Euodynerus foraminatus)


potter wasp (Euodynerus hidalgo)


potter wasp (Leptochilus ornatus)


potter wasp (Leptochilus republicanus)


potter wasp (Leptochilus spp.)


potter wasp (Parancistrocerus fulvipes)


potter wasp (Parancistrocerus leionotus)


potter wasp (Parancistrocerus pedestris)


potter wasp (Parancistrocerus pensylvanicus)


potter wasp (Parancistrocerus vagus)


potter wasp (Parazumia symmorpha)


potter wasp (Pterocheilus quinquefasciatus)


potter wasp (Stenodynerus ammonia)


potter wasp (Stenodynerus anormis)


potter wasp (Zethus spinipes spinipes)

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prairie mound ant (Formica montana)


pugnacious leaf-cutter bee (Megachile pugnata)

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pure green augochlora (Augochlora pura)


pygmy nomad bee (Nomada pygmaea)

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pyramid ant (Dorymyrmex insanus)


red-bearded mound ant (Formica neorufibarbis)

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red-belted bumble bee (Bombus rufocinctus)


red-belted plasterer bee cellophane bee (Colletes rufocinctus)


redheaded pine sawfly (Neodiprion lecontei)


resin bee (Heriades carinata)


Robertson’s plasterer bee (Colletes robertsonii)

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roseslug (Endelomyia aethiops)


rudbeckia yellow-faced bee (Hylaeus rudbeckiae)


ruddy nomad bee (Nomada rubicunda)


ruddy slave-making mound ant (Formica rubicunda)


rusty patched bumble bee (Bombus affinis)

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sand wasp (Gorytes spp.)


sand-loving wasp (Tachytes distinctus)


Sanderson’s bumble bee (Bombus sandersoni)


sanicle yellow-faced bee (Hylaeus saniculae)


sawfly (Suborder Symphyta)


Say’s cuckoo nomad bee (Nomada sayi)

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Say’s sunflower burrowing-resin bee (Paranthidium jugatorium jugatorium)


scalloped cuckoo sweat bee (Sphecodes dichrous)


scorpionweed plasterer bee (Colletes phaceliae)


sculptured resin bee (Megachile sculpturalis)


short-horned cellophane bee (Colletes brevicornis)


short-spined ant (Myrmica brevispinosa)


silky ant (Formica fusca group)


silky striped sweat bee (Agapostemon sericeus)


silvery field ant (Formica argentea)


slender-faced yellow-faced bee (Hylaeus leptocephalus)


small-handed leaf-cutter bee (Megachile gemula)


smaller carpenter ant (Camponotus nearcticus)


smaller yellow ant (Lasius claviger)

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somewhat silky mound ant (Formica subsericea)


spider wasp (Auplopus archictectus)


spider wasp (Auplopus caerulescens)


spider wasp (Auplopus mellipes variitarsatus)


spider wasp (Auplopus nigrellus)

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spider wasp (Caliadurgus fasciatellus)

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spider wasp (Pompilidae)


spine-shouldered cellophane bee (Colletes simulans)

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spiny rose gall wasp (Diplolepis bicolor)

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spiny rose stem gall wasp (Diplolepis spinosa)

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spongy oak apple gall wasp (Amphibolips confluenta)


spotted nomad bee (Nomada maculata)


spurred carpenter bee (Ceratina calcarata)


square-headed wasp (Ectemnius maculosus)

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square-headed wasp (Subfamily Crabroninae)


square-headed wasp (Tribe Crabronini)


squash longhorn-cuckoo (Triepeolus remigatus)


sumac cellophane bee (Colletes nudud)

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sunflower nomia (Dieunomia heteropoda)


superb nomada (Nomada superba)


Susanna’s cellophane bee (Colletes susannae)

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sweat bee (Subfamily Halictinae)

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Taschenberg’s long-necked ant (Dolichoderus taschenbergi)

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terminal mummy wasp (Aleiodes terminalis)

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Texas leaf-cutter bee (Megachile texana)


thief ant (Solenopsis molesta)


thimbleberry stem gall wasp (Diastrophus kincaidii)


thistle long-horned bee (Melissodes desponsus)


thread-waisted wasp (Ammophila nigricans)

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thread-waisted wasp (Ammophila pictipennis)


thread-waisted wasp (Prionyx parkeri)


thread-waisted wasp (Subfamily Sphecinae)


three-knotted long-horned bee (Melissodes trinodis)


tickseed long-horned bee (Melissodes coreopsis)


tiny crazy ant (Nylanderia parvula)


tiny-queened field ant (Lasius minutus)


translucent oak gall wasp (Amphibolips nubilipennis)

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trefoil sawfly (Atomacera debilis)

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tricolored bumble bee (Bombus ternarius)

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true melissodes bees (Melissodes Subgenus Eumelissodes)


tufted potter wasp (Symmorphus cristatus)

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turfgrass ant (Lasius neoniger)

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two-spotted bumble bee (Bombus bimaculatus)

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two-spotted longhorned bee (Melissodes bimaculatus bimaculatus)


Ulke’s ant (Formica ulkei)


unequal cellophane bee (Colletes inaequalis)


valiant long-horned bee (Melissodes illatus)


velvet ant (Dasymutilla spp.)


vertical potter wasp (Eumenes verticalis)


vertical yellow-faced bee (Hylaeus verticalis)


very smooth sweat bee (Lasioglossum laevissimum)


Viereck’s sweat bee (Lasioglossum vierecki)


vigorous long-horned bee (Melissodes subillatus)


Walden’s potter wasp (Ancistrocerus waldenii)


wall mason wasp (Ancistrocerus parietum)

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western honey bee (Apis mellifera)


western thatching ant (Formica obscuripes)


white cellophane bee (Colletes albescens)


white pine sawfly (Neodiprion pinetum)


white-banded potter wasp (Ancistrocerus albophaleratus)


white-horned horntail (Urocerus albicornis)


white-zoned furrow bee (Lasioglossum leucozonium)


wide-faced ant (Myrmica latifrons)


wide-footed field ant (Lasius latipes)

Profile Photo Video  

wild carrot wasp (Gasteruption assectator)


Wilmatte’s plasterer bee (Colletes wilmattae)


Williston’s cellophane bee (Colletes willistoni)


willow leaf gall (Pontania spp.)


willow sawfly (Nematus ventralis)


winter ant (Prenolepis imparis)


wood ant (Formica spp.)


wool-bearing gall wasp (Andricus quercuslanigera)


yellow shadow ant (Lasius aphidicola)

Profile Photo Video  

yellow-banded bumble bee (Bombus terricola)


yellow-faced bee (Hylaeus bisinuatus)


yellow-faced bee (Hylaeus elliptica)


yellow-faced bee (Hylaeus fedorica)


yellow-faced bee (Hylaeus floridanus)

  Photo Video  

yellow-faced bee (Hylaeus spp.)


yellowjacket (Vespula sp.)



Agapostemon sericeus (silky striped sweat bee)

Agapostemon splendens (brown-winged striped sweat bee)

Agapostemon virescens (bicolored striped sweat bee)

Aleiodes abdominalis (orange-bellied mummy wasp)

Aleiodes terminalis (terminal mummy wasp)

Allantus cinctus (curled rose sawfly)

Ammophila nigricans (thread-waisted wasp)

Ammophila pictipennis (thread-waisted wasp)

Ammophila procera (common thread-waisted wasp)

Amphibolips confluenta (spongy oak apple gall wasp)

Amphibolips cookii (oak gall wasp)

Amphibolips nubilipennis (translucent oak gall wasp)

Amphibolips quercusinanis (larger empty oak apple wasp)

Amphibolips quercusjuglans (acorn plum gall wasp)

Ancistrocerus adiabatus (potter wasp)

Ancistrocerus albophaleratus (white-banded potter wasp)

Ancistrocerus antilope (potter wasp)

Ancistrocerus campestris (potter wasp)

Ancistrocerus catskill (Catskill potter wasp)

Ancistrocerus parietum (wall mason wasp)

Ancistrocerus spinolae (potter wasp)

Ancistrocerus unifasciatus (potter wasp)

Ancistrocerus waldenii (Walden’s potter wasp)

Andrena hirticincta (hairy-banded mining bee)

Andrena nubecula (cloudy-winged miner bee)

Andrena spp. (mining bee)

Andricus quercuslanigera (wool-bearing gall wasp)

Anthophora terminalis (orange-tipped wood-digger bee)

Apis mellifera (western honey bee)

Aritranis director (ichneumon wasp)

Astata unicolor (crabonid wasp)

Atanycolus charus (braconid wasp)

Atanycolus crassicruris (braconid wasp)

Atanycolus longicauda (braconid wasp)

Atanycolus nigropyga (braconid wasp)

Atanycolus niteofrons (braconid wasp)

Atanycolus rugosiventris (braconid wasp)

Atanycolus simplex (braconid wasp)

Atanycolus spp. (braconid wasp)

Atanycolus ulmicola (braconid wasp)

Atomacera debilis (trefoil sawfly)

Augochlora pura (pure green augochlora)

Augochlorella aurata (golden sweat bee)

Augochloropsis metallica (green metallic sweat bee)

Auplopus archictectus (spider wasp)

Auplopus caerulescens (spider wasp)

Auplopus mellipes variitarsatus (spider wasp)

Auplopus nigrellus (spider wasp)

Bembix americana (American sand wasp)

Bicyrtes quadrifasciatus (four-banded stink bug hunter wasp)

Bombus affinis (rusty patched bumble bee)

Bombus auricomus (black-and-gold bumble bee)

Bombus bimaculatus (two-spotted bumble bee)

Bombus borealis (northern amber bumble bee)

Bombus citrinus (lemon cuckoo bumble bee)

Bombus fernaldae (Fernald's cuckoo bumble bee)

Bombus fervidus (golden northern bumble bee)

Bombus frigidus (frigid bumble bee)

Bombus griseocollis (brown-belted bumble bee)

Bombus huntii (Hunt’s bumble bee)

Bombus impatiens (common eastern bumble bee)

Bombus insularis (indiscriminate cuckoo bumble bee)

Bombus nevadensis (Nevada bumble bee)

Bombus pensylvanicus (American bumble bee)

Bombus perplexus (confusing bumble bee)

Bombus rufocinctus (red-belted bumble bee)

Bombus sandersoni (Sanderson’s bumble bee)

Bombus spp. (bumble bee)

Bombus ternarius (tricolored bumble bee)

Bombus terricola (yellow-banded bumble bee)

Bombus vagans (half-black bumble bee)

Family Braconidae (braconid wasp)

Caliadurgus fasciatellus (spider wasp)

Caliroa cerasi (pear sawfly)

Callirhytis quercus punctata (gouty oak gall wasp)

Camponotus nearcticus (smaller carpenter ant)

Camponotus novaeboracensis (New York carpenter ant)

Camponotus pennsylvanicus (eastern black carpenter ant)

Caulocampus acericaulis (maple petiole borer)

Ceratina calcarata (spurred carpenter bee)

Charops annulipes (ichneumon wasp)

Family Chrysididae (cuckoo wasp)

Subfamily Chrysidinae (cuckoo wasp)

Chrysis angolensis (metallic bluish-green cuckoo wasp)

Chrysura smaragdula (cuckoo wasp)

Cimbex americana (elm sawfly)

Coelioxys alternatus (alternate cuckoo-leaf-cutter bee)

Coelioxys octodentata (eight-toothed cuckoo leaf-cutter bee)

Colletes aberrans (aberrant cellophane bee)

Colletes albescens (white cellophane bee)

Colletes americanus (American cellophane bee)

Colletes andrewsi (Andrew’s cellophane bee)

Colletes brevicornis (short-horned cellophane bee)

Colletes compactus (aster cellophane bee)

Colletes consors (kindred cellophane bee)

Colletes eulophi (cellophane bee)

Colletes hyalinus (hyaline cellophane bee)

Colletes impunctatus (impunctate cellophane bee)

Colletes inaequalis (unequal cellophane bee)

Colletes kincaidii (Kincaid’s cellophane bee)

Colletes latitarsis (broad-footed cellophane bee)

Colletes mandibularis (mandibular cellophane bee)

Colletes nudud (sumac cellophane bee)

Colletes phaceliae (scorpionweed plasterer bee)

Colletes robertsonii (Robertson’s plasterer bee)

Colletes rufocinctus (red-belted plasterer bee cellophane bee)

Colletes simulans (spine-shouldered cellophane bee)

Colletes solidaginis (goldenrod cellophane bee)

Colletes speculiferus (beach dune cellophane bee)

Colletes spp. (cellophane bees)

Colletes susannae (Susanna’s cellophane bee)

Colletes validus (blueberry cellophane bee)

Colletes willistoni (Williston’s cellophane bee)

Colletes wilmattae (Wilmatte’s plasterer bee)

Colpotrochia trifasciata (ichneumon wasp)

Cosmoconus canadensis (ichneumon wasp)

Cosmoconus spp. (ichneumon wasp)

Subfamily Crabroninae (square-headed wasp)

Tribe Crabronini (square-headed wasp)

Cratichneumon annulatipes (ichneumon wasp)

Cratichneumon paratus (ichneumon wasp)

Cratichneumon pteridis (ichneumon wasp)

Cratichneumon spp. (ichneumon wasp)

Cratichneumon sublatus (ichneumon wasp)

Cratichneumon tyloidifer (ichneumon wasp)

Cratichneumon unifasciatorius (ichneumon wasp)

Cratichneumon vescus (ichneumon wasp)

Cratichneumon vinnulus (ichneumon wasp)

Cratichneumon w-album (ichneumon wasp)

Croesus latitarsus (dusky birch sawfly)

Cynips quercusfolii (cherry gall wasp)

Dasymutilla spp. (velvet ant)

Diastrophus kincaidii (thimbleberry stem gall wasp)

Dieunomia heteropoda (sunflower nomia)

Diplolepis bicolor (spiny rose gall wasp)

Diplolepis rosae (mossy rose gall wasp)

Diplolepis spinosa (spiny rose stem gall wasp)

Diprion similis (introduced pine sawfly)

Disholcaspis quercusmamma (oak rough bulletgall wasp)

Dolichoderus mariae (Mary’s long-necked ant)

Dolichoderus plagiatus (mottled long-necked ant)

Dolichoderus taschenbergi (Taschenberg’s long-necked ant)

Dolichovespula arenaria (common aerial yellowjacket)

Dolichovespula maculata (bald-faced hornet)

Dorymyrmex insanus (pyramid ant)

Ectemnius maculosus (square-headed wasp)

Elampus spp. (cuckoo wasp)

Endelomyia aethiops (roseslug)

Eriocampa juglandis (butternut woollyworm)

Eumenes bollii (potter wasp)

Eumenes crucifera-nearcticus (cross potter wasp)

Eumenes fraternus (fraternal potter wasp)

Eumenes verticalis (vertical potter wasp)

Subfamily Eumeninae (potter and mason wasps)

Euodynerus annulatus (potter wasp)

Euodynerus boscii-molestus (potter wasp)

Euodynerus crypticus (potter wasp)

Euodynerus foraminatus (potter wasp)

Euodynerus hidalgo (potter wasp)

Euodynerus leucomelas (black-and-white digger wasp)

Fenusa ulmi (elm leafminer)

Forelius pruinosus (high noon ant)

Formica argentea (silvery field ant)

Formica exsectoides (Allegheny mound ant)

Formica fossaceps (pitted mound ant)

Formica fusca group (silky ant)

Formica lasioides (fuzzy mound ant)

Formica montana (prairie mound ant)

Formica neogagates (New World mound ant)

Formica neorufibarbis (red-bearded mound ant)

Formica obscuripes (western thatching ant)

Formica obscuriventris (northern red wood ant)

Formica pallidefulva (pale mound ant)

Formica podzolica (podzol mound ant)

Formica rubicunda (ruddy slave-making mound ant)

Formica sanguinea (blood-red ant)

Formica spp. (wood ant)

Formica subaenescens (light bronze mound ant)

Formica subsericea (somewhat silky mound ant)

Formica ulkei (Ulke’s ant)

Family Formicidae (ants)

Gasteruption assectator (wild carrot wasp)

Gorytes spp. (sand wasp)

Subfamily Halictinae (sweat bee)

Halictus confusus (confusing furrow bee)

Halictus ligatus (ligated furrow bee)

Halictus parallelus (parallel-striped sweat bee)

Halictus rubicundus (orange-legged furrow bee)

Hedychrum confusum (cuckoo wasp)

Heriades carinata (resin bee)

Hylaeus affinis (eastern yellow-faced bee)

Hylaeus basalis (cinquefoil yellow-faced bee)

Hylaeus bisinuatus (yellow-faced bee)

Hylaeus elliptica (yellow-faced bee)

Hylaeus fedorica (yellow-faced bee)

Hylaeus floridanus (yellow-faced bee)

Hylaeus leptocephalus (slender-faced yellow-faced bee)

Hylaeus mesillae (Mesilla yellow-faced bee)

Hylaeus modestus (modest yellow-faced bee)

Hylaeus rudbeckiae (rudbeckia yellow-faced bee)

Hylaeus saniculae (sanicle yellow-faced bee)

Hylaeus spp. (masked bee)

Hylaeus spp. (yellow-faced bee)

Hylaeus verticalis (vertical yellow-faced bee)

Family Ichneumonidae (ichneumon wasp)

Isodontia mexicana (Mexican grass-carrying wasp)

Lasioglossum coriaceum (leathery sweat bee)

Lasioglossum cressonii (Cresson’s sweat bee)

Lasioglossum laevissimum (very smooth sweat bee)

Lasioglossum leucozonium (white-zoned furrow bee)

Lasioglossum paraforbesii (bald-spot sweat bee)

Lasioglossum pectorale (dull-breasted sweat bee)

Lasioglossum vierecki (Viereck’s sweat bee)

Lasius alienus (cornfield ant)

Lasius aphidicola (yellow shadow ant)

Lasius claviger (smaller yellow ant)

Lasius latipes (wide-footed field ant)

Lasius minutus (tiny-queened field ant)

Lasius neoniger (turfgrass ant)

Leptochilus ornatus (potter wasp)

Leptochilus republicanus (potter wasp)

Leptochilus spp. (potter wasp)

Lissonota acrobasidis (ichneumon wasp)

Lissonota atrimalis (ichneumon wasp)

Lissonota brevipappus (ichneumon wasp)

Lissonota brunnea (ichneumon wasp)

Lissonota conferta (ichneumon wasp)

Lissonota coracina (ichneumon wasp)

Lissonota crevieri (ichneumon wasp)

Lissonota cruralis (ichneumon wasp)

Lissonota cylpeator (ichneumon wasp)

Lissonota exigua (ichneumon wasp)

Lissonota exilis (ichneumon wasp)

Lissonota imitatrix (ichneumon wasp)

Lissonota parva (ichneumon wasp)

Lissonota punctata (ichneumon wasp)

Lissonota rubrica (ichneumon wasp)

Lissonota scutellaris (ichneumon wasp)

Lissonota spp. (ichneumon wasp)

Lissonota stenostoma (ichneumon wasp)

Lissonota tegularis (ichneumon wasp)

Macremphytus tarsatus (dogwood sawfly)

Macremphytus testaceus (dogwood sawfly)

Macrophya epinota (common sawfly)

Macrophya flavolineata (common sawfly)

Macrophya fumator (common sawfly)

Macrophya pulchella (common sawfly)

Macrophya spp. (common sawfly)

Macrophya tibiator (common sawfly)

Macrophya trisyllaba (common sawfly)

Megachile brevis (common little leaf-cutter bee)

Megachile campanulae (bellflower resin bee)

Megachile frigida (frigid leaf-cutter bee)

Megachile gemula (small-handed leaf-cutter bee)

Megachile latimanus (broad-handed leafcutting bee)

Megachile melanophaea (black-and-gray leaf-cutter bee)

Megachile mendica (flat-tailed leaf-cutter bee)

Megachile pugnata (pugnacious leaf-cutter bee)

Megachile rotundata (alfalfa leafcutting bee)

Megachile sculpturalis (sculptured resin bee)

Megachile spp. (leaf-cutter bee)

Megachile texana (Texas leaf-cutter bee)

Megarhyssa atrata (giant ichneumon)

Megarhyssa macrurus (giant ichneumon)

Melanichneumon spp. (ichneumon wasp)

Melissodes agilis (agile long-horned bee)

Melissodes bimaculatus bimaculatus (two-spotted longhorned bee)

Melissodes confusa (confusing long-horned bee)

Melissodes coreopsis (tickseed long-horned bee)

Melissodes denticulatus (denticulate long-horned bee)

Melissodes desponsus (thistle long-horned bee)

Melissodes druriellus (Drury’s long-horned bee)

Melissodes grindelliae (long-horned bee)

Melissodes illatus (valiant long-horned bee)

Melissodes menuachus (goldenrod long-horned bee)

Melissodes pallidisignatus (pale-marked long-horned bee)

Melissodes spp. (long-horned bee)

Melissodes subagilis (nimble long-horned bee)

Melissodes Subgenus Eumelissodes (true melissodes bees)

Melissodes subillatus (vigorous long-horned bee)

Melissodes trinodis (three-knotted long-horned bee)

Melissodes wheeleri (long-horned bee)

Melittobia spp. (chalcid wasp)

Meteorus spp. (braconid wasp)

Monomorium minimum (little black ant)

Monophadnoides spp. (common sawfly)

Muesbeckidium obsoletum (cuckoo wasp)

Myrmica americana (American ant)

Myrmica brevispinosa (short-spined ant)

Myrmica latifrons (wide-faced ant)

Nematus ventralis (willow sawfly)

Neodiprion lecontei (redheaded pine sawfly)

Neodiprion pinetum (white pine sawfly)

Neodiprion sertifer (European pine sawfly)

Neuroterus exiguissimus (oak gall wasp)

Neuroterus floccosus (oak flake gall wasp)

Neuroterus saltatorius (California jumping gall wasp)

Nomada articulata (articulated nomad bee)

Nomada banksi (Bank’s nomad bee)

Nomada cressonii (Cresson’s nomad bee)

Nomada cuneata (cuneate nomad bee)

Nomada denticulata (denticulate cuckoo nomad bee)

Nomada depressa (depressed cuckoo nomad bee)

Nomada graenicheri (Graenicher’s cuckoo nomad bee)

Nomada illinoensis (Illinois cuckoo nomad bee)

Nomada imbricata (imbricate cuckoo nomad bee)

Nomada luteoloides (black-and-yellow nomad)

Nomada maculata (spotted nomad bee)

Nomada obliterata (obliterated nomad)

Nomada ovata (ovate cuckoo nomad bee)

Nomada pygmaea (pygmy nomad bee)

Nomada rubicunda (ruddy nomad bee)

Nomada sayi (Say’s cuckoo nomad bee)

Nomada spp. (nomad bee)

Nomada superba (superb nomada)

Nomada vicina (neighborly nomad)

Nylanderia parvula (tiny crazy ant)

Odynerus dilectus (beloved vespid wasp)

Ophionellus spp. (ichneumon wasp)

Ophionellus texanus (ichneumon wasp)

Osmia lignaria lignaria (blue orchard bee)

Parancistrocerus fulvipes (potter wasp)

Parancistrocerus leionotus (potter wasp)

Parancistrocerus pedestris (potter wasp)

Parancistrocerus pensylvanicus (potter wasp)

Parancistrocerus vagus (potter wasp)

Paranthidium jugatorium jugatorium (Say’s sunflower burrowing-resin bee)

Parazumia symmorpha (potter wasp)

Pelecinus polyturator (American pelecinid wasp)

Polistes dominula (European paper wasp)

Polistes fuscatus (northern paper wasp)

Pompilidae (spider wasp)

Pontania spp. (willow leaf gall)

Prenolepis imparis (winter ant)

Pristiphora erichsonii (larch sawfly)

Pristiphora geniculata (mountain ash sawfly)

Profenusa canadensis (hawthorn leafminer)

Pterocheilus quinquefasciatus (potter wasp)

Sceliphron caementarium (black and yellow mud dauber)

Scolia dubia (blue-winged wasp)

Solenopsis molesta (thief ant)

Subfamily Sphecinae (thread-waisted wasp)

Sphecodes confertus (bi-lobed cuckoo sweat bee)

Sphecodes davisii (Davis’s cuckoo sweat bee)

Sphecodes dichrous (scalloped cuckoo sweat bee)

Sphecodes heraclei (cyclops cuckoo sweat bee)

Sphecodes persimilis (homogeneous cuckoo sweat bee)

Sphecodes ranunculi (buttercup cuckoo sweat bee)

Sphex ichneumoneus (great golden digger wasp)

Sphex pensylvanicus (great black digger wasp)

Stelis coarctatus (constrained cuckoo carder bee)

Stenodynerus ammonia (potter wasp)

Stenodynerus anormis (potter wasp)

Symmorphus canadensis (Canadian potter wasp)

Symmorphus cristatus (tufted potter wasp)

Suborder Symphyta (sawfly)

Tachytes distinctus (sand-loving wasp)

Tapinoma sessile (odorous house ant)

Family Tenthredinidae (common sawfly)

Tethida cordigera (black-headed ash sawfly)

Therion circumflexum (ichneumon wasp)

Therion fuscipenne (ichneumon wasp)

Therion morio (ichneumon wasp)

Therion nigripes (ichneumon wasp)

Therion petiolatum (ichneumon wasp)

Therion spp. (ichneumon wasp)

Therion tenuipes (ichneumon wasp)

Therion texanum (ichneumon wasp)

Tomostethus multicinctus (brown-headed ash sawfly)

Tremex columba (pigeon tremex)

Trichrysis doriae (cuckoo wasp)

Triepeolus cressonii (eucera cuckoo nomad bee)

Triepeolus lunatus (lunate longhorn-cuckoo)

Triepeolus pectoralis (goldenrod longhorn-cuckoo bee)

Triepeolus remigatus (squash longhorn-cuckoo)

Triepeolus spp. (cuckoo bee)

Trigonaspis quercusforticorne (oak fig gall wasp)

Urocerus albicornis (white-horned horntail)

Urocerus cressoni (black and red horntail)

Vespula acadica (forest yellowjacket)

Vespula alascensis (common yellowjacket)

Vespula flavopilosa (downy yellowjacket)

Vespula germanica (German yellowjacket)

Vespula maculifrons (eastern yellowjacket)

Vespula sp. (yellowjacket)

Vespula vidua (ground hornet)

Vulgichneumon brevicinctor (ichneumon wasp)

Zethus spinipes spinipes (mason wasp)

Zethus spinipes spinipes (potter wasp)


acorn plum gall wasp

alfalfa leafcutting bee

Allegheny mound ant

American pelecinid wasp

American sand wasp

ant (Family Formicidae)

bald-faced hornet

bicolored striped sweat bee

black and yellow mud dauber

black-and-gold bumble bee

braconid wasp (Atanycolus sp.)

braconid wasp (Family Braconidae)

broad-handed leafcutting bee

brown-belted bumble bee

bumble bee (Bombus sp.)

butternut woollyworm

common aerial yellowjacket

common eastern bumble bee

common sawfly (Family Tenthredinidae)

common sawfly (Macrophya epinota)

common sawfly (Macrophya pulchella)

common sawfly (Macrophya sp.)

common sawfly (Macrophya trisyllaba)

cellophane bee (Colletes sp.)











cuckoo bee (Triepeolus sp.)


cuckoo wasp (Subfamily Chrysidinae)

curled rose sawfly

dogwood sawfly

dogwood sawfly (Macremphytus testaceus)

downy yellowjacket

eastern yellowjacket

eight-toothed cuckoo leaf-cutter bee

elm leafminer

elm sawfly

four-banded stink bug hunter wasp

fraternal potter wasp

German yellowjacket

cuckoo bee (Triepeolus sp.)

great black digger wasp

great golden digger wasp

hairy-banded mining bee

half-black bumble bee

ichneumon wasp (Charops annulipes)

ichneumon wasp (Aritranis director)

Ichneumon Wasp (Cosmoconus sp.)

ichneumon wasp (Cratichneumon spp.)

ichneumon wasp (Family Ichneumonidae)



















ichneumon wasp (Lissonota sp.)

ichneumon wasp (Ophionellus sp.)

ichneumon wasp (Therion sp.)

ichneumon wasp (Vulgichneumon brevicinctor)

larger empty oak apple wasp

leaf-cutter bee (Megachile sp.)

lemon cuckoo bumble bee

long-horned bee (Melissodes sp.)

mason wasp (Zethus spinipes spinipes)

metallic bluish-green cuckoo wasp

Mexican grass-carrying wasp

mining bee (Andrena sp.)

New York carpenter ant

nomad bee (Nomada sp.)

northern amber bumble bee

northern paper wasp

oak fig gall wasp

oak flake gall wasp

oak gall wasp (Amphibolips cookii)

oak rough bulletgall wasp

orange-tipped wood-digger bee

pigeon tremex

podzol mound ant

potter wasp (Eumeninae)


































prairie mound ant

pure green augochlora

pyramid ant

red-belted bumble bee


sand-loving wasp (Tachytes distinctus)

sand wasp (Gorytes sp.)

Say’s sunflower burrowing-resin bee

silky striped sweat bee

somewhat silky mound ant

spider wasp (Caliadurgus fasciatellus)

spider wasp (Pompilidae)

spiny rose gall wasp

spiny rose stem gall wasp

spongy oak apple gall wasp

square-headed wasp

sunflower nomia

sweat bee (Subfamily Halictinae)

Taschenberg’s long-necked ant

terminal mummy wasp

Texas leaf-cutter bee

thread-waisted wasp (Ammophila pictipennis)

thread-waisted wasp (Sphecinae)

trefoil sawfly

tricolored bumble bee

true melissodes bee (Melissodes Subgenus Eumelissodes)

turfgrass ant

two-spotted bumble bee

two-spotted longhorned bee
















western honey bee








wild carrot wasp

wood ant (Formica sp.)

yellow-banded bumble bee

yellow-faced bee (Hylaeus sp.)




No Species Page Yet?

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Capitalization of Common Names

Insect scientific names are governed by the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN). Vernacular (common) names are not. In an attempt to “assure the uniformity of (common) names of common insects” the Entomological Society of America (ESA) published Common Names of Insects and Related Organisms. ESA has no rule or guideline that addresses capitalization of common names. However, the database of common names published by ESA does not capitalize common names. National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) also uses uncapitalized common names. Most other sources, including ITIS, BAMONA, Odonata Central, and the Peterson Field Guides, capitalize common insect names. MinnesotaSeasons.com will adhere to the convention followed by ESA and NCBI.


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