golden borer

(Papaipema cerina)

golden borer
Photo by Bill Reynolds
  Hodges #

9464

 
 
Conservation Status
  IUCN Red List

not listed

     
  NatureServe

N3N4 - Vulnerable to Apparently Secure

     
  Minnesota

not listed

     
           
 
Description
 
 

Golden borer is a mid-sized owlet moth. Adults are 11 16 to 1 in length.

The forewing is bright yellow or pale yellow with pale brown scalloped lines; dark brown spots (reniform, orbicular, and claviform spots); a toothed, chocolate brown postmedial line; and a band of dark brown shading beyond that. The spots are said to be “outlined in brown”, but appear to be mostly outline. The reniform spot in the median area is narrowed in the middle appearing as two connected spots. The wing tip (apical area) is yellow. The hindwings are white.

The antennae are slender and thread-like.

 
     
 

Size

 
 

Total Length: 11 16 to 1

Wingspan: 2

 
     
 

Similar Species

 
     
     
 
Habitat
 
 

Deciduous forest and woodland edges, prairies

 
     
 
Biology
 
 

Season

 
 

September through mid-October

 
     
 

Behavior

 
 

Middle and late instar caterpillars bore into the roots, rhizomes, and stems of host plants.

Adults are sluggish, which may account in part for the scarcity of this species. They are active at night and are attracted to light.

The wings are folded over the body when at rest.

 
     
 

Life Cycle

 
 

The eggs are laid in the fall and hatch in the spring. The larvae pupate in the summer and emerge as adults in late summer.

 
     
 

Larva Hosts

 
 

Eastern bottlebrush (Elymus hystrix) grass is the normal foodplant for early and middle instar larvae. However, the stalks are not thick enough to support older caterpillars, which move to may-apple (Podophyllum peltatum), lilies (Lilium sp.), dark green bulrush (Scirpus atrovirens).

 
     
 

Adult Food

 
 

 

 
     
 
Distribution
 
 

Distribution Map

 

Sources

21, 24, 29, 75.

 
  9/17/2017      
         
 

Occurrence

 
 

Uncommon

 
         
 
Taxonomy
 
 

Order

Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths)  
 

Suborder

Glossata  
 

Infraorder

Neolepidoptera  
  Parvorder Heteroneura  
  No Rank Ditrysia  
  No Rank Obtectomera  
 

Superfamily

Noctuoidea (noctuid moths)  
 

Family

Noctuidae (owlet moths)  
 

Subfamily

Amphipyrinae/Hadeninae/Noctuinae  
 

Tribe

Apameini  
 

Genus

Papaipema  
       
 

There have been three major revisions of the family Noctuidae since 2006, each placing the genus Papaipema in a different subfamily, Amphipyrinae, Hadeninae, and Noctuinae. All three subfamilies are currently used for this genus by various authors.

 
       
 

Synonyms

 
 

 

 
       
 

Common Names

 
 

golden borer

golden borer moth

 
       

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Glossary

Instar

The developmental stage of arthropods between each molt; in insects, the developmental stage of the larvae or nymph.

 

 

 

 

 

 
 
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Bill Reynolds

 
  The moth is resting on a Dandelion leaf and had no desire to move on this cool day.   golden borer  
           
    golden borer   golden borer  
           
 
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  Bill Reynolds
9/14/2017

Location: Pennington Co. MN

The moth is resting on a Dandelion leaf and had no desire to move on this cool day.

golden borer  
           
 
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