hairy puccoon

(Lithospermum caroliniense var. croceum)

Conservation Status
hairy puccoon
 
  IUCN Red List

not listed

     
  NatureServe

N4? - Apparently Secure

SNR - Unranked

     
  Minnesota

not listed

     
           
           
 
Description
 
 

Hairy puccoon is a 6 to 24 tall, erect, perennial forb that rises on 1 to 12 or more stems from a stout, woody root.

The stems are erect and usually unbranched, though sometimes branched near the top. They are roughly hairy. The hairs on the stem have small, elevated, blister-like elevations (pustules) at the base.

The leaves are alternate, stalkless, relatively thick, linear to lance-shaped, 1 to 2 long, and to ½ wide. There are usually more than 25 crowded leaves below the inflorescence. They are angled or narrowly rounded at the base and bluntly pointed at the tip. Sometimes there is a minute, sharp point at the tip. There is a single prominent vein and no noticeable lateral veins. The upper and lower surfaces are grayish-green to green and roughly hairy. There are small, elevated, blister-like elevations (pustules) at the base of the hairs on the leaves. The margins are untoothed and have a fringe of soft hairs.

The inflorescence is 1 to 3 leafy, branched, flower clusters at the end of the stem and branches. The flowers at the top bloom first, the lateral flowers progressively later. The clusters are dense at first, elongate as the lateral flowers bloom, eventually becoming coiled and 2 to 10 long.

The flowers are ½ to 1 wide and funnel-shaped. There are no closed, self-fertilizing (cleistogamous) flowers. The sepals are fused at the base into a short, cup-like structure (calyx) then separated into 5 linear, flat, ¼ to ½ long lobes. The 5 petals are orange to yellow. They are fused at the base into a 9 16 to 1 long floral tube, then separated into 5 spreading, to 1 wide lobes. The lobes are not fringed. There are 5 stamens. The flowers are subtended by bracts that are much longer than the calyx. There is no floral scent.

The fruits are 1 to 4 egg-shaped, long, white, smooth, shiny, hard nutlets. Each nutlet contains 1 seed.

 
     
 

Height

 
 

6 to 24

 
     
 

Flower Color

 
 

Orange to light golden yellow

 
     
 

Similar Species

 
 

Fringed puccoon (Lithospermum incis um) inflorescence does not elongate as the season progresses. The floral tube is much longer, ¾ to 2 long. In the late spring and summer it becomes much branched with cleistogamous flowers in the leaf axils of the new branches.

Hoary puccoon (Lithospermum canescens) rises on 5 or fewer stems. The stems are less leafy. The leaves are densely, softly hairy, not rough. The hairs on the stem and leaves are not pustule-based, though this may not be apparent without a hand lens. The inflorescence, when fully elongated, is much shorter, 1 to 4 long. The flowers are smaller, to ½ wide. The calyx lobes are shorter, to ¼ long when the plant is in full flower. The floral tube is shorter, ¼ to long. The fruit is cream-colored, not white.

 
     
 
Habitat
 
 

Dry. Prairies, open woods, inland sands. In sandy soil.

 
     
 
Biology
 
 

Flowering

 
 

May to July

 
     
 

Pests and Diseases

 
 

 

 
     
 
Use
 
 

 

 
     
 
Distribution
 
 

Distribution Map

 

Sources

2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 24, 28, 30.

 
  10/21/2021      
         
 

Nativity

 
 

Native

 
         
 

Occurrence

 
 

 

 
         
 
Taxonomy
 
  Kingdom Plantae (green algae and land plants)  
  Subkingdom Viridiplantae (green plants)  
  Infrakingdom Streptophyta (land plants and green algae)  
  Superdivision Embryophyta (land plants)  
  Division Tracheophyta (vascular plants)  
  Subdivision Spermatophytina (seed plants)  
  Class Magnoliopsida (flowering plants)  
  Superorder Asteranae  
 

Order

Boraginales  
 

Family

Boraginaceae (borage)  
  Subfamily Boraginoideae  
  Tribe Lithospermeae  
 

Genus

Lithospermum (stoneseeds, puccoons, and gromwells)  
       
 

Subordinate Taxa

 
 

 

 
       
 

Synonyms

 
 

Lithospermum caroliniense ssp. croceum

Lithospermum croceum

 
       
 

Common Names

 
 

Carolina gromwell

Carolina puccoon

hairy puccoon

puccoon

 

 

 

 

 

 

Glossary

Axil

The upper angle where the leaf stalk meets the stem.

 

Calyx

The group of outer floral leaves (sepals) below the petals, occasionally forming a tube.

 

Cleistogamous

Automatically self-pollinating. Refers to bud-like flowers that do not open but automatically self-pollinate, or to plants with such flowers.

 

Linear

Long, straight, and narrow, with more or less parallel sides, like a blade of grass.

 

Pustule

Small, elevated, blister-like elevations, usually at the base of hairs.

 

Sepal

An outer floral leaf, usually green but sometimes colored, at the base of a flower.

“Larger, Lighter, Longer”

For a convenient mnemonic to distinguish between hairy puccoon and hoary puccoon in the field, think “Larger, Lighter, Longer." Hairy puccoon has larger petals that are slightly but noticeably lighter in color and have longer floral tubes.

 
 
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Nancy Falkum

 
 

Hairy Puccoon, Rose, and June Grass

 
    hairy puccoon      
           
 

Bird’s Foot Violet, Hairy Puccoon, and Lyre Leaved Rock Cress

 
    birdfoot violet      
           
 
MinnesotaSeasons.com Photos
 
 

Plant

 
    hairy puccoon   hairy puccoon  
           
    hairy puccoon      
           
 

Inflorescence

 
    hairy puccoon   hairy puccoon  
           
 

Flowers

 
    hairy puccoon   hairy puccoon  

 

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  Nancy Falkum
6/10/2017

Location: Kellogg Weaver Dunes SNA, Weaver Dunes Unit

Hairy Puccoon, Rose, and June Grass

birdfoot violet  
  Nancy Falkum
5/9/2017

Location: Kellogg Weaver Dunes SNA, Weaver Dunes Unit

Bird’s Foot Violet, Hairy Puccoon, and Lyre Leaved Rock Cress

birdfoot violet  
           
 
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