intermediate bellflower

(Campanula intercedens)

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List

not listed


NNR - Unranked

SNR - Unranked


not listed

Wetland Indicator Status

Great Plains

FAC - Facultative


FACU - Facultative upland

Northcentral & Northeast

FACU - Facultative upland

intermediate bellflower
Photo by Mike Fellows

Intermediate bellflower is a 4 to 20 tall, erect, perennial forb that rises from shallow roots and a slender rhizome.

The stems are slender and erect to ascending. They do not recline on adjacent plants. They are unbranched except just below the inflorescence. They may be hairless or have inconspicuous longitudinal lines of hairs. When broken, the stem exudes a milky sap.

Basal leaves are, broadly egg-shaped to nearly circular, 3 16 to long, and 3 16 to 5 16 wide. They are on slender, ¾ to 1¼ long leaf stalks. They are shallowly heart-shaped, rounded, or broadly angled at the base and rounded or angled to a sharp point at the tip. The upper and lower surfaces are hairless. The margins are untoothed or have a few blunt teeth. Basal leaves are often absent at flowering time. The species name, rotundifolia, refers to the shape of the basal leaves.

Stem leaves are alternate and ascending or spreading. Lower stem leaves are long-stalked, narrowly elliptic to narrowly inversely egg-shaped, and 1¼ to 2 long. The upper and lower surfaces are hairless. The margins are untoothed. The leaves become progressively smaller, narrower, and shorter stalked as they ascend the stem. Upper stem leaves are stalkless and narrowly lance-shaped to linear.

The inflorescence is a nodding, usually unbranched cluster (raceme) of 3 to 8 flowers at the end of the stem.

The flowers are bell-shaped and ¾ to 1¼ long. There are 5 green sepals (calyx), fused at their base into a 1 16 to long tube, then separated into 5 linear, to 3 16 long lobes. The calyx lobes are widely spreading at maturity. There are 5 light blue to blue petals (corolla), fused at their base for about half of their length into a ¼ to long tube, then separated into 5 lance-shaped, long lobes. The lobes of the corolla are much shorter than the tube and are flared outward. The calyx and corolla are each radially symmetrical so that if bisected vertically on any plane each half would be identical. There are 5 stamens that do not protrude from the corolla tube. There is a single violet style that ends in a stigma with 3 lobes. The style protrudes from the corolla tube but is not as long as the petals.

The fruit is a nearly spherical, 3-chambered capsule containing many seeds. The capsule is to 3 16 long, 1 16 to in diameter.



4 to 20


Flower Color



Similar Species


Dry to moderate moisture. Woods, meadows, cliffs, and beaches. Full or partial sun.



June to October


Pests and Diseases





Distribution Map



2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 24, 28, 29, 30.

Campanula intercedens is currently thought to be the only naturally occurring member of the new Complex Campanula rotundifolia in Minnesota. This map includes previous records and sightings of Campanula rotundifolia in Minnesota from most sources. It does not include those that have since been identified as another species, or those that are now identified only to the level of Complex Campanula rotundifolia on iNaturalist.









Plantae (green algae and land plants)


Viridiplantae (green plants)


Streptophyta (land plants and green algae)


Embryophyta (land plants)


Tracheophyta (vascular plants)


Spermatophytina (seed plants)


Magnoliopsida (flowering plants)




Asterales (sunflowers, bellflowers, fanflowers, and allies)


Campanulaceae (bellflower)


Campanuloideae (bellflower)


Campanula (bellflowers)


Until recently, Campanula rotundifolia was considered to be a single variable species that was widely distributed and common throughout the temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere. In 2007, Thomas G. Lammers published the book World Checklist and Bibliography of Campanulaceae. Lammers split Campanula rotundifolia into eleven species, four of which occur in North America north of Mexico. The eastern species, Campanula intercedens, is the only species native to Minnesota.

Acceptance of the split was not immediate but it has been gaining traction very recently. iNaturalist committed the split on March 12, 2024, and placed all of the split species into the Harebell Complex (Complex Campanula rotundifolia). Plants of the World Online, World Flora Online, GBIF, and ITIS recently recognized the split. Final recognition is pending at NatureServe as of this writing (6/26/2024). Database of Vascular Plants of Canada (VASCAN) and USDA PLANTS treat the new names as synonyms of Campanula rotundifolia. GRIN does not recognize the new names, not even as synonyms.


Subordinate Taxa




Campanula latisepala f. alba

Campanula rotundifolia f. albiflora

Campanula rotundifolia f. cleistocodona

Campanula rotundifolia f. linifolia

Campanula rotundifolia ssp. intercedens

Campanula rotundifolia var. alpina

Campanula rotundifolia var. canescens

Campanula rotundifolia var. dentata

Campanula rotundifolia var. intercedens

Campanula virgata


Common Names

intermediate bellflower












The group of outer floral leaves (sepals) below the petals, occasionally forming a tube.



A collective name for all of the petals of a flower.



Long, straight, and narrow, with more or less parallel sides, like a blade of grass.



An unbranched, elongated inflorescence with stalked flowers. The flowers mature from the bottom up.



A horizontal, usually underground stem. It serves as a reproductive structure, producing roots below and shoots above at the nodes.



The male reproductive organ of a flower consisting of an pollen-producing anther on a supporting filament.



The portion of the female part of the flower that is receptive to pollen.



Part of the pistil, usually a slender stalk, connecting the ovary to the stigma(s).

Visitor Photos

Share your photo of this plant.


This button not working for you?
Simply email us at
Attach one or more photos and, if you like, a caption.

Dan W. Andree

slender crab spider (Tibellus sp.) and intermediate bellflower  

slender crab spider (Tibellus sp.) and intermediate bellflower

On one outing I came across Slender...

It was just hanging out on a prairie flower at Frenchman’s Bluff SNA June 2024. I had no idea there was a Slender Crab Spider too. Compared to the other types it is a slender one.

Mike Fellows

intermediate bellflower Photos
intermediate bellflower   intermediate bellflower


intermediate bellflower    


intermediate bellflower   intermediate bellflower









Visitor Videos

Share your video of this plant.


This button not working for you?
Simply email us at
Attach a video, a YouTube link, or a cloud storage link.



Other Videos

Common Harebell (Campanula rotundifolia)
Wandering Sole TV


Published on Jul 14, 2012

Common Harebell on Sunflower Hill in British Columbia.

Common Harebell is native to temperate regions of Great Britain, Northern Europe, and North America.

Harebell (Campanula rotundifolia)


Uploaded on Jun 8, 2010 - Harebell also referred to as Bluebell Bellflower. It blooms at Prairie Moon Nursery in early June.



Visitor Sightings

Report a sighting of this plant.


This button not working for you?
Simply email us at
Be sure to include a location.

Dan W. Andree
June 2024

Location: Frenchman’s Bluff SNA

On one outing I came across Slender...
It was just hanging out on a prairie flower at Frenchman’s Bluff SNA June 2024. I had no idea there was a Slender Crab Spider too. Compared to the other types it is a slender one.

intermediate bellflower

Mike Fellows

Location: Butterwort Cliffs SNA

intermediate bellflower Sightings

Badoura Jack Pine Woodland SNA

Belgium Prairie

Blanket Flower Prairie SNA

Blazing Star Prairie

Blazing Star Prairie Addition Preserve, South Unit

Buffalo River State Park

Butterwort Cliffs SNA

Carpenter St. Croix Valley Nature Center

Cedar Creek Ecosystem Science Reserve

Charles A. Lindbergh State Park

Crow Wing State Park

Dry Sand WMA

Falls Creek SNA

Felton Prairie SNA, Bicentennial Unit

Franconia Bluffs SNA

Frenchman’s Bluff SNA

Glendalough State Park

Great River Bluffs State Park

Greenwater Lake SNA

Hayes Lake State Park

Interstate State Park

Itasca State Park

Itasca Wilderness Sanctuary SNA

Kasota Prairie SNA

Lake Alexander Woods SNA, South Unit

Lake Bemidji State Park

Lake Bronson State Park

Lake Carlos State Park

Lester Lake SNA

Lost Valley Prairie SNA

Maplewood State Park

Margherita Preserve-Audubon Prairie

McCarthy Beach State Park

Mille Lacs Kathio State Park

Mille Lacs Moraine SNA

Minnesota Valley NWR, Louisville Swamp Unit

Mississippi River County Park

Neal WMA

Northern Tallgrass Prairie NWR, Pavia Unit

Northern Tallgrass Prairie NWR, Rengstorf Unit

Northern Tallgrass Prairie NWR, Spieker Unit

Old Mill State Park

Oronoco Prairie SNA

Pankratz Memorial Prairie, North Unit

Pembina Trail Preserve SNA, Crookston Prairie Unit

Pin Oak Prairie SNA

Quarry Park SNA

Rice Lake Savanna SNA

River Terrace Prairie SNA

Rushford Sand Barrens SNA

St. Croix Savanna SNA

Sand Prairie Wildlife Management and Environmental Education Area

Sandpiper Prairie SNA

Santee Prairie SNA

Schoolcraft State Park

Seven Sisters Prairie

Sibley State Park

Spring Creek Prairie SNA

Swedes Forest SNA

Tiedemann WMA

Twin Valley Prairie SNA

Two Rivers Aspen Prairie Parkland SNA

Tympanuchus Prairie

Valley View Park

Whitewater State Park

Wild River State Park






Last Updated:

© All rights reserved.

About Us

Privacy Policy

Contact Us